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PEDS100 Chapter Notes -Nuchal Ligament, Intervertebral Foramina, Articular Processes

Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
Gail Amort- Larson

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Axial Skeleton
-hyoid bone doesn’t articulate with any other bone in body
Vertebral Column:
-26 bones (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)
-Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (1) 5 fused vertebrae, Coccygeal (1)
3-5 fused vertebrae
-Between superior/inferior articular processes plane joints, little gliding occurs but
small movements related to flexing,extending,rotation occur
Encloses and protects spinal cord
Supports the skull
Supports weight the head, neck, and trunk
Transfers weight to the lower limbs
Helps maintain upright body position
-Spinal Curves: four curves; Cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
sacral curve. Thoracic and sacral curves called primary curvatures because they
appear in fetal development, protect heart/lungs and reproductive organs. Lumbar
and and cervical curves called secondary curvatures because they don’t appear for
months after birth.
-Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature of spine
-Kyphosis: Normal thoracic curve becomes exaggerated posteriorly (round back) common
in ppl with osteoporosis
-Lordosis: Abdomen and buttocks protrude abnormally, caused by anterior exaggeration of
lumbar curve
Vertebral Anatomy:
-Vertebral body: Anterior part of vertebra, thick/oval. Transfers weight along axis of
vertebral column. Bodies of neighboring vertebrae are connected by ligaments and
separated by pads of fibrous cartilage called intervertebral discs
-Vertebral arch(neural arch): forms lateral and posterior margins of vertebral
foramen(surrounds spinal cord) Consists of floor(posterior surface of body), walls
(pedicles), and roof (lamina)
-Pedicles: arise along posterolateral margins of vertebral body
-Laminae: Extend posteromedially to complete roof of vertebral arch
-Spinous Process: Project dorsally and posteriorly from midline (palpable)
-Transverse Processes: Project laterally or dorsolaterally on both sides from point
where laminae join pedicles. Sites of muscle attachment, articulate with ribs
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