Vertebral Column

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Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Axial Skeleton -hyoid bone doesn’t articulate with any other bone in body Vertebral Column : -26 bones (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx) -Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (1) 5 fused vertebrae, Coccygeal (1) 3-5 fused vertebrae -Between superior/inferior articular processes plane joints, little gliding occurs but small movements related to flexing,extending,rotation occur Functions: •Encloses and protects spinal cord •Supports the skull •Supports weight the head, neck, and trunk •Transfers weight to the lower limbs •Helps maintain upright body position -Spinal Curves: four curves; Cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve, sacral curve. Thoracic and sacral curves called primary curvatures because they appear in fetal development, protect heart/lungs and reproductive organs. Lumbar and and cervical curves called secondary curvatures because they don’t appear for months after birth. -Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature of spine -Kyphosis: Normal thoracic curve becomes exaggerated posteriorly (round back) common in ppl with osteoporosis -Lordosis: Abdomen and buttocks protrude abnormally, caused by anterior exaggeration of lumbar curve Vertebral Anatomy : -Vertebral body: Anterior part of vertebra, thick/oval. Transfers weight along axis of vertebral column. Bodies of neighboring vertebrae are connected by ligaments and separated by pads of fibrous cartilage called intervertebral discs -Vertebral arch(neural arch): forms lateral and posterior margins of vertebral foramen(surrounds spinal cord) Consists of floor(posterior surface of body), walls (pedicles), and roof (lamina) -Pedicles: arise along posterolateral margins of vertebral body -Laminae: Extend posteromedially to complete roof of vertebral arch -Spinous Process: Project dorsally and posteriorly from midline (palpable) -Transverse Processes: Project laterally or dorsolaterally on both sides from point where laminae join pedicles. Sites of muscle attachment, articulate with ribs -Superior articular processes: project cranially from junction between pedicles and laminae, one on each side of vertebra -Inferior articular processes: project caudally from junction between pedicles and laminae, one on each side of vertebra -Articular Facet: Superior articular processes have facet to articulate with inferior articular process of a cranial vertebra Cervical Vertebrae(C1-C7): -smallest of vertebrae -extend from occipital bone of skull to thorax -small body, large vertebral foramen -C2-C6 are typical cervical vertebra, Spinous processes are bifid (notched, split into two parts) ligamentum nuchae attaches here, holds head up -Transverse foramen: Formed by costal and transverse processes, artery goes thr
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