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Chapter

PEDS100 Chapter Notes -Nuchal Ligament, Intervertebral Foramina, Articular Processes


Department
Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
PEDS100
Professor
Gail Amort- Larson

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Axial Skeleton
-hyoid bone doesn’t articulate with any other bone in body
Vertebral Column:
-26 bones (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)
-Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (1) 5 fused vertebrae, Coccygeal (1)
3-5 fused vertebrae
-Between superior/inferior articular processes plane joints, little gliding occurs but
small movements related to flexing,extending,rotation occur
Functions:
Encloses and protects spinal cord
Supports the skull
Supports weight the head, neck, and trunk
Transfers weight to the lower limbs
Helps maintain upright body position
-Spinal Curves: four curves; Cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
sacral curve. Thoracic and sacral curves called primary curvatures because they
appear in fetal development, protect heart/lungs and reproductive organs. Lumbar
and and cervical curves called secondary curvatures because they don’t appear for
months after birth.
-Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature of spine
-Kyphosis: Normal thoracic curve becomes exaggerated posteriorly (round back) common
in ppl with osteoporosis
-Lordosis: Abdomen and buttocks protrude abnormally, caused by anterior exaggeration of
lumbar curve
Vertebral Anatomy:
-Vertebral body: Anterior part of vertebra, thick/oval. Transfers weight along axis of
vertebral column. Bodies of neighboring vertebrae are connected by ligaments and
separated by pads of fibrous cartilage called intervertebral discs
-Vertebral arch(neural arch): forms lateral and posterior margins of vertebral
foramen(surrounds spinal cord) Consists of floor(posterior surface of body), walls
(pedicles), and roof (lamina)
-Pedicles: arise along posterolateral margins of vertebral body
-Laminae: Extend posteromedially to complete roof of vertebral arch
-Spinous Process: Project dorsally and posteriorly from midline (palpable)
-Transverse Processes: Project laterally or dorsolaterally on both sides from point
where laminae join pedicles. Sites of muscle attachment, articulate with ribs
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