Chapter 3 Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

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Physical Education and Sport
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Michael Kennedy

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Compartments may separate a cells intracellular fluid from the external environment As cells evolve each compartment cooperates with one another and specialize within specific functionsAdvantage Biological compartments separate biochemical processes that might otherwise conflict with one another ex Protein synthesis is happening in one compartment while protein degradation is happening in another Disadvantage Since there are barriers between compartments living organisms have specialized mechanisms to transport needed materials across membranesFunctional Compartments of the BodyThe body is basically a complex compartment that is separated from the outside world by layers of cellsThe body is divided into 3 major body cavities which are separated by bones and tissues1 Cranial Cavity cranium skull contains the brain our primary control centre2 Thoracic Cavity bounded by spine ribs and the muscular diaphragm It contains the heart protected by a tissue membrane called pericardial sac and 2 lungs pleural sacs protect it also3 Abdominopelvic Cavity contains your tummy intestines liver pancreas gallbladder and spleen abdomen part and it also contains reproductive organs urinary bladder large intestine pelvis partLumens of Some Organs Are Outside the BodyThe heart or lungs which are hollow organs have another set of compartments within the body The interior of any hollow organ is called its lumen windowA lumen can either be filled or partially filled with air or fluid ex For blood vessels the lumen is filled with fluid called bloodFor some organs the lumen is still part of the external environment It would not necessarily mean the material in the lumen is part of the bodys internal environment until it ACTUALLY crosses or goes through the wall of the organ ex The hole through a bead Hole is not necessarily inside the bead but it just passes throughFunctionally the Body Has 3 Fluid CompartmentsMost cells of the body are not in direct contact with the outside world Instead their external environment is the extracellular fluidThink of the cells of the body together as 1 unit then divide the body into 2 main fluid compartments 1 ECF extracellular fluid outside cells 2 ICF intracellular fluid within cells ECF subdivides further into plasma fluid portion of the blood and interstitial fluid which surrounds most cells of the bodyBiological MembranesThe word membrane is used both for1 Cell membranes which is a bilayer of phospholipids with protein molecules inserted in them It is a thin layer of lipids that separates the aqueous fluids of the interior and outside environment2 Tissue that lined a cavity or separated 2 compartments ex Pleural membrane covering the surface of the lungs or pericardial membrane that surrounds the heart They are thin translucent layers of cellsLook at Figure 31 cCell Membrane Separates Cell from EnvironmentGeneral functions of the cell membrane include1Physical isolation Cell membrane is a physical barrier that separates ICF from the ECF2Regulation of exchange with environment Controls the entry of ions and nutrients into the cell elimination of cellular wastesthe release of products from the cell3Communication between the cell and its environment Contains proteins that allow the cell to recognize and respond to molecules or to changes in its external environment4Structural support Proteins in the cell membrane hold the cytoskeleton cells interior structural scaffolding in place to maintain cell shape
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