Perceptual motor theories in the 60s.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
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Jody Virr

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Nov 8 – Pecerption – Action Development Role of Action in Perception • Developmentalists suspect that movement is important to perceptual development • ... is necessary for the coupling, or linking, or perception and movement Historical Views Perceptual motor theories in the 60s • Identified perception as the precursor of movement and cognition • Speculated that learning disabilities could be remediated through perceptual- motor programs • Little evidence exists that perceptual-motor programs improved classroom skills Contemporary views • Perceptual motor activities are important • Motor and cognitive development are intertwined • Ecological views – newborns perceive the environment and many of its properties. They have this base level of perception. Infants then receive more info from environment to guide another movement • There’s a hypothesis that there is a perception-action loop. • The period after physical activity had an increased ability to learn Recent Research • Perception develops ahead of movement skills • Movement skills are acquired with guidance from perceptual information • New actions make new information (perceptions) available • Exercise stimulates brain activity that facilitates learning and memory Self Produced Locomotion • Held and Hein (1963): motor skills development in the passive kitten was hindered • Bertenthal, Campos, and Barret; Kermoian and Campos: perception of spatial relationships was enhanced by locomotor experience • Lockman; Mckenzie and Bigelow: spatial perception improved with increased locomotor experienced. Prewalkers gained experience through walkers so they gain experience as if they were walking. • Gibson: with increased experience, infants showed more sensitivity to surfaces and slopes. Walkers were shown different surfaces and the infant had to decide if they could walk across the surface or not. If the surface was not stable, infant would crawl on surface and wouldn’t walk on the surface. • With an increased motor experience, we are developing motor pathways. With extra percetual motor affiliations, we are developing the nervous system. • As we age, we use certain neurons. The ones we don't use disappear and we lose the ability to make quick connections. • Self produced locomotion facilitates the development of depth perception and the efficiency of our nervous system. • Spatial perception: enables people to know the distances of objects in relation to other objects. • Lockman and Mckenzie made infants walk through barriers to find mom. Perception of Affordances Ecological view: it is the affordance that is perceived • Affordances involve what the environment permits, given the capabilities of the performer • They are perceived directly, without cognitive analysis of object characteristics Example: stairs afford climbing Warren related stair height to leg length. If an infant is short, they may crawl up stairs. If we were presented with large stairs, we would alter our locomotion pattern to get up the stairs. Affordances Incorporate Body Scale • Body scale is an individual’s size relative to the environment • Body scales change over the life span • Scaling of sports environment and environments allow individuals of various sizes to perform similar movements Tool Use in First Year • Infants use trial-and-error exploration • Infants relate objects to other obje
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