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PEDS334 Chapter Notes -Energy Density, Twin, Sedentary Lifestyle

Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
Scott Forbes

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Losing Weight
3500 kcal = 1 lb of body weight
Example of how the body deals with positive energy balance:
1. You consume an extra chocolate-chip cookie (~100 kcal/ea) every day for 40 y.
2. The number of extra kcals you would consume would be ~1.5 million
100 kcals x 365 d x 40 y =1,460,000 kcals
3. Assume 3500 kcal/pound body wt and you would estimate weight gain to be 417
pounds in 40 years.
1,460,000 kcals 3500 kcals/pound = 417 pounds
4. In reality, if you ate these extra kcals you would probably only gain ~ 6 pounds of
Factors Regulating and Influencing Energy Balance
Environment and lifestyle, cognition, reward, choice, mood, stress, genetics and early
life events
Energy Intake
Total kcal/day
Composition of diet
Satiety issues
Amount and type of fiber
Type of foods (energy density)
Timing of intake related to PA
Current weight and body comp
Hormonal control of appetite, fat deposition
All these EI factors play a role on nutrient sensors in the muscle, liver, fat
and gut which all report to the brain
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Nutrient sensors in the muscle,liver, fat, and gut all have an effect on energy
Energy Expenditure
Resting Metabolic Rate
Activities of Daily Living
Programmed PA
Intensity of PA
Body comp
Total EI and comp of kcals
Futile energy cycles
Studies of monozygotic twins showed that variability of BMI is 2.3 due to
Athlete who wants to lose weight
Coach and training play big roll; changing training is difficult
Diet needs to play a bigger role
Need less fluctuation in weight in and weight out to manage weight
Need time for weight change
Need supportive environment
See what athlete is willing to change
Athlete wants to lose 12 lbs of body weight
Estimated EI: 4229 kcal/day (PA = 1.9)
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