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Chapter 4

POL S101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: 20Th Century Women, Environmentalism, Woodlot


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL S101
Professor
Satish Joshi
Chapter
4

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CH 4 Newer Perspectives: Feminism and Environmentalism
Feminism
Achieving equality for women !
Establishing equal rights and opportunities for women!
Eliminating discriminatory practices, while challenging the traditional views about women!
Changing the patriarchal nature of society !
!
Early Developments of Feminism
Mary Wollenstonecraft!
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), in response to The Declaration of the Rights of Man,
rejecting the common notion that women's natural role was to please men and raise & bear the children !
She argued that women are human beings with the same capacity for rational thinking as men and should
have the same rights as men!
Assumed women were more likely to choose domestic life rather than paid employment!
Women would be better equipped to raise their children and marriages would be happier if women were
educated and equal!
!
Feminism: 19th & Early 20th Century !
Women played a large role in various political activities in the 19th and early 20th centuries!
Various groups challenged a variety of laws that gave men legal control of women, their property, and even their
children!
!
Feminism: The 1960's-1980's !
The women's liberation movement of the late 1960's viewed women as the "oppressed class", claimed that "all
men are oppressors", and sought to unite women !
Women of colour and dierent sexual orientations were critical of some prominent women's groups due to the
lack of attention to the problems faced by dierent groups of women !
Second-wave feminists were accused of being too middle class, puritanical in their appearance and views on
sexuality, and too negative toward women who wanted to experience motherhood !
!
Feminism: Third-Wave Feminism !
Began in the early 1990's to the present !
Emphasizes the diversity of women's experiences and circumstances!
Celebrates female values, experiences, and beauty!
Challenges confining gender roles!
Argue that society is still patriarchal and in need of collective action to achieve social, political, and cultural
change!
!
Equality and Dierence
The social roles typically assigned to women have resulted in female values that can make an important
contribution to the political community!
Women are more likely to be nurturing, caring, co-operative, emotional, and spiritual !
Female and male virtues are either complementary or incompatible!
!
Liberal Feminism
Extends the struggle of women in the latter part of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century for
equal legal and political rights!
Discrimination against women limits their opportunities!
Focuses on ensuring that women have the freedom and opportunity to engage in politics, business, careers, and
employment on the same basis as men!
!
Socialist Feminism
Women are oppressed by the male-dominated character of society and the capitalist system!
Male-female relations reflect the exploitative relationships of capitalists to workers!
Argue that the liberation of women involves a struggle against the patriarchy and the transformation of capitalism
into a more co-operative and egalitarian socialist society!
!
!
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