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POL S101 (30)
Chapter 18

Chapter 18.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL S101
Professor
Satish Joshi

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Last half of Chapter 18: • The Realist School and the Limits of Governance o Global governance is viewed skeptically; big powers don't show a true  willingness to share or shape a global world  Security of a country identifies its sovereignty; not likely to be  surrendered to any IGO  System is likely to remain in power of the most powerful  countries; unequal; remains anarchic • Liberal­Internationalism o More optimistic about global governance o Differs from realism through:  Countries are not the only players in international governance;  includes smaller regional groups, NGO’s  (Greenpeace, Amnesty  International); and other INGO’s (international non­governmental  organizations)  States & societies interact in many different issue areas  ▯political,  economic, social, & cultural  ▯no one is dominant • Add graph on p. 457  International relations as opposed to international politics  States are not unitary actors, but a group of different actors  ▯ individuals, socio­economic groups,   There is no single constant national interest; many different,  shifting, competing national interests  Believe that individuals, groups, institutions learn from their  experiences & mistakes, are capable of modifying behavior  accordingly • International Society in the Making o World is made of sovereign states, no authority above them  Question how significant anarchy is for international system;   Sovereignty is constantly evolving  Responsibility to protect citizens from avoidable catastrophes and  guarantee human rights;  • When states cannot provide, international community must  pitch in to assure global humane treatment • Interdependence o Lib­Int’s believe that international systems are interdependent; each is  affected by the actions of others;   Environmental policy, climate change; o International structure is an evolving one; the world is a global society in  the making  ▯sovereign states are more united than ever • Why States Co­Operate? o States usually comply with international law even in the absence of a  central authority;   States do what is right and moral; want international prestige  States have learned that it is in their best interest to abide  international law; better to live in a global, predictable world rather  than a lawless one;  o Order and predictability are good economically because surprises are  costly • Joining IGOS o IGO’s rarely enforces rules on states unwilling to abide by them; better to  cooperate o Memberships in IGO’s does not weaken state sovereignty; provides  different context in which to exercise it; membership decreases cost  because individuals actively volunteer instead of negotiations;  o IGO’s regulate international activity through international regime  ▯ defined sets of principles, norms, & procedures that regulates international  activity in a specific area  World Trade Organization; oversees international trade  International regimes reinforce cohabitation;  greater likelihood of  peace in future • Problem of Security and the Search for Peace o Unlike realists who think that states can only rely on themselves for help;   liberal internationalists believe that states can rely on IGO’S and laws o Collective security;  aggressive nations will be controlled.  Member  nations pledged to ensure global security o The UN is a system of collective security; as long as there is a  cooperation; aggression is minimal I   We must assume though nations are willing to protect against the  aggressor  When Japan invaded Manchuria and Italy conquered Ethiopia  League of Nations did not deliver  The UN has only responded with collective action twice: • Stopping North Korea from invading South Korea • Stopping Iraq from invading Kuwait o Disagreements in collective action are partly due to secrecy in  international affairs • The World Trade Organization o Managers trade relations amongst 153 members o Promote free­trade and allow governments to negotiate trade agreements o Dates back to 1947 with the general agreement on Paris and trade try to  overcome economic nationalism and open free markets o The WTOs regulated by the ministerial conference form by ministers of  member stat
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