Chapter 10: Emotion and Motivation
Emotion: A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of
James-Lange Theory-A theory about the relationship between emotional experience and
physiological activity suggesting that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous
system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.
Cannon-Bard Theory-A theory about the relationship between emotional experience
and physiological activity suggesting that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in
the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain.
Two-Factor Theory-A theory about the relationship between emotional experience and
physiological activity suggesting that emotions are inferences about the causes of
undifferentiated physiological arousal.
Appraisal-An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus that is performed
by the amygdala.
Emotion Regulation-The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s
Reappraisal-A strategy that involves changing one’s emotional experience by changing
the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus.
Emotional Expression-Any observable sign of an emotional state.
Universality Hypothesis-The hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same
meaning for everyone.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis-The hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the
emotional experiences they signify.
Display Rules-Norms for the control of emotional expression.
Motivation-The purpose for or cause of an action. Hedonic Principle-The notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and
Homeostasis-The tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state.
Drive-An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality.
Bulimia Nervosa-An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Anorexia Nervosa-An eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and
severe restriction of food intake.
Metabolism-The rate at which energy is used by the body.
Human Sexual Response Cycle-The stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity.
Extrinsic Motivation-A motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but
that lead to reward.
Intrinsic Motivation-A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding.
Conscious Motivation-A motivation of which one is aware.
Unconscious Motivation-A motivation of which one is not aware.
Need for Achievement-The motivation to solve worthwhile problems.
Approach Motivation-A motivation to experience positive outcomes.
Avoidance Motivation-A motivation not to experience negative outcomes. Summary for Chapter 10:
Emotional Experience: The Feeling Machine:
Emotional experiences are difficult to describe, but psychologists have identified
their two underlying dimensions: arousal and valence.
Psychologists have spent more than a century trying to understand how
emotional experience and physiological activity are related. The James-Lange
theory suggests that a stimulus causes a physiological reaction, which leads to an
emotional experience; the Cannon-Bard theory suggests that a stimulus causes
both an emotional experience and a physiological reaction simultaneously