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Chapter 6

Psychology Chapter 6-Psychology 104/105

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Connie Varnhagen

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Chapter 6: Learning Terms: Learning-Some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. Habituation-A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding. Classical Conditioning-When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)-Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism. Unconditioned Response (UR)-A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. Conditioned Response (CR)-A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus. Acquisition-The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together. Second-Order Conditioning-Conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS. Extinction-The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented. Spontaneous Recovery-The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period. Generalization-A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition. Discrimination-The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. Biological Preparedness-A propensity for learning particular kind of associations over others. Operant Conditioning-A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future. Law Of Effect-The principle that behaviors that are followed by a “satisfying state of affairs” tend to be repeated and those that produce an “unpleasant state of affairs” are less likely to be repeated. Operant Behavior-Behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment. Reinforcer-Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Punisher-Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Overjustification Effect-Circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior. Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)-An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made. Variable Interval Schedule (VI)-An operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement. Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)-An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)-An operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. Intermittent Reinforcement-An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement. Intermittent-Reinforcement Effect-The fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement. Shaping-Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior. Latent Learning-A condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future. Cognitive Map-A mental representation of the physical features of the environment. Observational Learning-A condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others. Implicit Learning-Learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition. Summ
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