The Presence of Others
• The presence of another rider releases the competitive instinct, which increases nervous energy and
enhances performance. (he came up with this as data. If you start with data▯then go to theory this is called
induction. If he was to start with theory then get a data▯deduction_
• Procedure: He had 40 kids, and he had them wind up some fishing real, to determine how fast your reel.
Some kids were assignment to wind up the reel in front of another while another group did it alone (random
assignment though. Results: the kids in front of other did this faster thus supported his theory.
• All animals will become aroused (more feeling alert/awake/energy) in the presence of conspecifics
((members of the same species=human + human)
• Arousal increases the dominant response. ( it is an action that is more likely to occur form a given stimulus
presented. That stimulus=task)
• The dominant response depends on the type of task
• A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on
difficult tasks. (Facilitate the dominant response=social facilitation=make easier)
• I.e. you are learning to drive stick. At first it will be very difficult as they’re a lot of different things to do.
Your dominant response is pretty much to mess up and this is your dominant response. Now if you put
other people in this car, this will make it even worse now. But after sometime when you become good, now
your dominant response is now changed to doing well. If you now put other people this will increase our
performance of driving now.
• It is suggested to be universal (external validity, every one in the world does it. But also it exists in other
animals as well like cockroaches if they are
around their conspecific only though.
• Study: cockroach navigates and get to the
end as soon and quickly as possible to get a
reward. The variables were 1) audience + 2)
how complicated the design was. Thus it is a
2 by 2 design.
• Easy maze=dominant response is influenced
by the task so here it is to do well. More
faster if you have other cockroaches
• Hard=dominant response is to go slow. Thus
in the presence of other animals now▯even
goes slow now. Thus, It is not just about
evaluation (since other animals do it). It is
just the mere presence of conspecific is
• A group produced reduction in individual output on taste where contributions are pooled and you cannot be
signalled out. (You are carrying a couch with other so you don’t put too much effort as no one can tell how
much force you are putting in)
• Participant came in and