Chapter 8: Concepts
1) Is categories definitions alwaysaccurate description of real world?
2) Participants were presented with a list of different types of water (e.g., rain water,
purified water, ocean water, etc..) and asked to arrange them from best to worse
example of water and tell how much H20 is in it. What did the result show? (Hint:
any relation to affordance)
3) And is the difference between Disjunctive rule and Conjunctive rule? Which
one is used the most?
4) How does Prototypically relate to categories?
5) The less prototypical the color, the longer participants take to respond.
6) If you have a color that is not so similar to the prototypical color of htat family
(i.e. green ▯ light green) how does this effect your respond time when asked about
what kind of color is this?
7) If Participants were given a category label (e.g., birds, plants, fruit) and asked to
list off examples what is usually the very first item listed?
8) What are the three level of hierarchy we see when we categorize thing?
9) When Participants would be presented with a category label (Categories would
either be superordinate, basic, or specific) and be asked to list the attributes that
unite members of the category what kind of features were found in each category
10) When Participants would be shown a series of pictures and be asked to identify
the object do we have any preference as to which category (be superordinate,
basic, or specific) do we use to identify them?
11) When individuals develop expertise within a domain, do they have have a
tendency to switch from basic description? If do what do they use then?
12) When you ask Participants who were either birdwatching “experts” or not about
what kind of bird is this? Do we see any difference in terms of how or what
category do they use to describe the bird>
13) 8(2): why do we see tht Individuals who are newly exposed to a racial group tend
to be poor at discriminating between individuals vs those who has been exposed
to the culture before? (hint: category change/experts)
14) are Infant Sensitive to Categories?
15)When infants (34 months) are familiarized with four distinct looking animals all
of the same time (e.g., cat, dog). Then, they are shown a novel animal (either
similar congruent or different/incongruent to what they have been expose to) and
Time spent covertly attending to the novel animal is measured. What results do
16) In infants at what months do superordinate (animal vs. furniture), basic (dog vs.
cat), or specific (a type of dog) began to appear?
17) What are goalderived categories? What are properties of these categories?
18)What is the Nearest Neighbor rule and what percent people use it?