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Chapter 1

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Blaine Mullins

Chapter 1 – Cognitive Psychology - “Minority Report” – sci-fi film where “precogs” could arrest killers before they committed the crime - Folk psychology: assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviour (ex. common sense) The Mind - Cognition: any processes involved in thinking - Creates and controls mental functions and represents information (allows us to interact with the world) » Allows us to communicate and share emotion - Constantly working (when we’re doing any task) - Sometimes makes mistakes (ex. forgetting people’s names) History of Psychology - Ancient Greece: » Plato = ideas » Aristotle = goals  Theory of Science: study using observations (not just deduction) » Socrates = critical thinking  We are born with knowledge about the world we just need to access it (by asking a lot of questions) » Assumptions:  We can study the world  The mind is a part of the physical world  We can develop explanations about worldly phenomenon - Renaissance: » Creation of scientific method using reasoning and observation » 2 Ancient Greece assumptions still hold (we can study and explain the world)  BUT the mind isn’t a part of the physical world (because if it was, we would be able to read people’s thought before they think it) » Nativism: we are hardwired with certain abilities when we are born (genetics) » Empiricism: we are born a blank slate and we have to learn everything » Kant: mix between nativism and empiricism there is some part of us that is blank but how we learn is inborn – experience us our teacher) - Research: » Weber/Fechner: studied human response to physical stimulus » Donders: studied reaction time using subtraction log (perform 3 tasks measure reaction time take away one task measure reaction time subtract 2 reaction times to get the time needed to complete that one task)  Mental chronometry: use reaction time to infer mental processes  Ex1 Present stimulus Stimulus detection Response Record reaction time  Ex2 Present stimulus Stimulus detection Decide on colour Response Record reaction time  Subtracting the 2 reaction times will give the amount of time needed for mental processes to make a decision » Ebbinghaus: studied memory empirically created mathematical function to explain memory  Savings = (Original Learning – Relearning/Original Learning))x100%  Savings = amount of time you save when recalling information a second time  Original learning = amount of time you had to repeat something to remember it  Relearning = amount of time you had to relearn forgotten information  You forget more than half of what you learn after 1 hour » Wundt: first psychologist created the first psychology lab » James: brought psychology from Europe to the USA » Watson, Pavlov, Skinner: studied behaviorism rather than thought because thinking was based on inferences that weren’t the same for everyone (does he look happy or hungry?) presented stimulus and measured response » Tolman: cognitive maps » Cherry: selective attention » Chomsky: language » Piaget/Bartlett: schemas Cognitive Psychology - Cognitive psychology: mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through though, experiences and senses » The mind is made of representations and processes » Parts of cognition can be studied in isolation (ex. language) » Ignore social and cultural influences - Automatic processing:
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