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Chapter 6

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School
University of Alberta
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO258
Professor
Blaine Mullins
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 6 – Memory Systems Tulving and the Theory of Memory Systems - Principle of encoding specificity: the way an item is retrieved depends on how the item was encoded » A cue is more likely to trigger the recall of an item if it was initially encoded with the item » Ex. participants were asked to learn 24 pairs of weakly associated words (ex. plant BUG) they were then shown another list of words and asked to write down the first word that came to mind  Although people wrote 18 words from the original list, they only remembered 4 as being part of the original list  When given weak cue words, they recalled 15 » Recognition failure of recognizable words: words generated in response were the same as targets but weren’t recognized as such  Nature of encoding influences its memory trace weak cues were better retrieval tools because they were present during encoding  Strong cues for target words are due to general knowledge - Episodic memory: personally experienced events that occur during a specific time and location (ex. a particular instant of being lazy) - Semantic memory: knowledge of words, concepts and their relationships general knowledge that is not unique (ex. being a lazy person) - Retrograde amnesia: inability to recall events prior to injury semantic memories are intact but episodic memories are destroyed » Episodic and semantic memories are independent of each other » Recency bias: recalling experiences from the last 12 months » Primacy bias: recalling experiences from the distant past » Can still accurately judge own personality traits and how they may have changed over time Theories of Memory Systems - Tacit knowledge: knowing how to do something without being able to say exactly what it is you know » Procedural memory: knowing how to do things learned skills (ex. riding a bike) - Explicit knowledge: knowing that something is the case when you outline exactly how to ride a bike (part of semantic memory) Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Consciousness - Anoetic: non-knowing level of consciousness associated with procedural memory » Only concerns immediate situation - Noetic: knowing associated with semantic memory » Involved immediate surroundings and things that lie beyond it (ex. remembering a fact about riding bicycles) - Autonoetic: self-knowing associated with episodic memory » Remembering personal experiences » Allows you to see the past and project yourself into the future (goals) » Occurs in prefrontal cortex prefrontal leucotomy severs connection between prefrontal cortex and the rest of the brain to calm patients because they focus too much on past/present/future problems) - Chronesthesia: our sense of time » Unique for humans because it allows us to change our environment to fit our needs rather than just waiting for us to adapt to it » Gives us a continued existence allows us to develop human civilization and culture » Birds also have a sense of remembering the past  store larvae (spoils fast) and peanuts  If a longer time has passed, it will automatically go to the peanuts even though it is less tasty  Therefore, they can remember how long ago they stored an item  Can’t anticipate the future - Children develop episodic memory at 4-5 years old  semantic memories develop earlier because at a younger age, they are focused on collecting info. from the world rather than specific experiences » At 4-5 years old, children can distinguish if they observed an event or someone told them about it they can determine if they learned something recently or a long time ago - Butcher-on-the-bus phenomenon: feeling that you know someone but can’t remember from where or anything else about them - Implicit memory: expression of previous experience without conscious recollection of prior episode without episodic awareness » Reading a lot of misspelled words can cause you to start spelling the words wrong afterwards » Fame judgment task: present list of famous and non-famous people to full and divided attention groups then present new list of non-famous and famous names and ask them to judge how many of the names are famous  Divided attention group recognizes more names as famous (think they have seen the name before so it must be famous) » Method of opposition: put conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) tendencies against each other  Inclusion/exclusion task: present list of words to full and divided attention groups and present a word stem completion task • Inclusion: half the group is allowed to use words from the list • Exclusion: half the group is not allowed to use words they’ve seen before • Divided attention group had the same % completion of words from the first list for both exclusion and inclusion task (may have used words from the list without even knowing it) Perceptual Representation System - Contains representations for events involved in priming effects - Very specific (ex. if shown a fragment, you will only remember fragment) - Superficial level (no deep meaning like in episodic memories) - If episodic memories are impaired, PRS will still remain intact Semantic Memory - Mental thesaurus of words and concepts - Tip of-the-tongue phenomenon: knowing you know something but are unable to recall it (ex
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