Textbook Notes (363,569)
Canada (158,433)
Psychology (512)
PSYCO258 (77)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Alberta
Blaine Mullins

Chapter 9 – Language Case Study - McGuffey’s First Eclectic Reader: textbook written in 1870s that taught kids how to read » Included hard words » Diacritical marks: symbols above letters that indicated correct sound » Intonation: lines at specific angles to indicate how voice should rise or fall » Articulation: sounds of language distinct, smooth with force Language - Most common languages: Mandarin, Spanish, English, Hindi-Urdu, Arabic » Mandarin = 9 million people - 6000 languages total - 2000 languages have less than 1000 speakers - Development of language across cultures is similar » Learn first word at 1 year » Learn two-word phrases by age 2 - Language: open-ended communication that consists of all possible sentences » Semantic must have meaning » Arbitrary but conventional removed from referent (pictures can’t be used as language) » Displaced can talk about things that are not physically or temporally present » Productive must be able to combine words to make an unlimited number of sentences » Hierarchical: basic sounds combine to make words words combine to make sentences » Sentence: grammatical utterance recognized by native speakers (there are an infinite number of sentences in a language) » Speech: spoken language only a small subset of all possible sentences - Grammar: sets of rules used to generate sentences grammatically correct sentences don’t have to be meaningful - Disciplines: » Linguistics: study structure and language itself » Psycholinguistics: study behaviour and how language effects representation » Neurolinguistics: how nervous system makes language possible Levels of Language - Phonology: study of sound system in language » Phone: smaller than phoneme (how different letters sound in different words) » Phoneme: smallest unit of speech that makes a difference to a native speaker 200 total  46 in English  15 in Hawaiian that is why words sound repetitive - Morphology: study of word formation and word structure » Morpheme: smallest unit of language that has meaning or grammatical function » Free: can stand on its own (ex. concrete noun) » Bound: must be added to another word (ex. “un”) » Inflectional: adding another letter doesn’t change the meaning of the word (ex. cat cats) » Derivational: adding another letter creates a new word (ex. modern modernize) - Semantics: study of meaning » Mental lexicon = mental dictionary contains all the words you know, how to say them, their meaning » Takes 200ms to access word in your mental lexicon » No agreement of how mental lexicon is organized - Syntax: rules about how sentences are formed - Discourse: language beyond the sentence (ex. expository = used to inform, conversational = what at least two people do, narrative = tell stories) Production of Language - Conceptualization: intention for expressing ideas » Semantic and pragmatic features (memory limitations) » Can use gestures when you don’t know what to say - Formulation: selecting words and syntactic structures simultaneously » Select phonological forms (plan to make sounds) occurs after you’ve created the words - Articulation: series of discrete motor plans tells you how to move your tongue etc. » May need to compensate (ex. if you are chewing gum) Structure of Language - Wundt: created first psychology lab » Tree diagram: process where you move from one level to other levels (all levels are present simultaneously) ordered serially  Describe the relationship between different parts of an overall experience  To understand a sentence, you move from level of succession to level of relations Before Chomsky st - Finite state grammar: each word in a sentence is formed in a sequence, starting from the 1 and ending with the last (shown using railroad diagram) » Symbolic model symbols = grammatical categories and production rules = tell you how to create sequence of words - Problem: » Too simple » Operates only on one level (from left to right) language is hierarchical  Linear structure would result in non-grammatical sentences as well » To generate all possible sentences, the railroad diagram would have to be huge » To learn all possible sentence, you would have to listen to several sentences per second (would take more than 100 years)  we can learn most sentences by age 3-4 Chomsky - Top 10 most cited author in the humanities (and only one that is still living) - Transformational grammar: theory of grammar that explains creativity of language through phrase structures and linguistic transformations - Phase structure rules: rules that describe how symbols (S) can be written as other symbols » Sentences can be broken down into simple forms (ex. write words as noun phrase or verb phrase) » Tree diagram: shows how a sentence is derived broken down into smaller parts (terminal string = final sequence of words) » Open-ended creativity, allows expression of unfamiliar meaning and allows production of infinite number of combinations (ex. add “he said” to make sentences longer) - Grammatical transformation: rules that change an entire string of symbols into a new string » Optional transformation: add “to be” or “by” to change active sentence to passive both forms of sentence are grammatically correct » Kernel sentences: no optional transformation easier to understand and remember because there are less words - Competence: internalized system of rules that fluent speakers possess ability to understand language » Idealized grammar that people automatically learn this is what we want to find out » Innate and internal » Universal grammar: innate structure includes universal syntax which allows you to transform meaning into words - Performance: actual language that people use » Memory people don’t use long sentences because others won’t keep listening » Age adults and children don’t say the same thing the same way » Does not give us a picture of a person’s competence - Surface structure: words that make up a sentence (explicit form) » To understand, you move from surface to deep » To produce, you move from phrase structure to deep to surface - Deep structure: underlying meaning of a sentence different deep structure can create the same surface structure (same sentence can have two different meanings) Learning Theory - Skinner - Children learn language by receiving feedback about what they have said (principle of reinforcement) - Get approval for saying the right thing (positive reinforcement) and disapproval for the wrong thing (negative reinforcement) - Parentese: how parents talk to babies talk slower with lots of repetition - Problems: » “Poverty of the stimulus” argument: linguistic environment to which a child is exposed to is too deficient to enable a child to learn language » Can’t explain how little input can produce so many different sentences  many constructions of language that a child possess are absent or infrequently used in the language they are exposed to » Adults make too many error and don’t always correct child (responded same way to both right and wrong sentences) expect children to make more mistakes » Children also acquire language way too fast – not enough time to learn it all Innateness Hypothesis - Innateness hypothesis: children innately possess a language acquisition device that comes equipped with principles of universal grammar - Language acquisition device (LAD): contains principles of universal grammar » Universal grammar: general principles that apply to all languages (ex. how NP and VP are arranged in a particular order) - Minimalism: linguistic competence has the characteristics that are absolutely necessary » Aims for simplest possible theory » Parameter-setting hypothesis: language acquisition involves a universal grammar that contains switches that can be set to certain values or parameters » Parameter: universal aspect of language can take on a few values (ex. where the verb goes in a sentence) » Exposure to a certain language triggers certain switches to values that characterize that language - Problems: » Parental reformulations: adult reformulation of child’s speech  Children do receive and make use of some connective  Negative inform child of mistake  Positive provide example of correct speech  Adults correct 50-70% time and children use reformulation 50% of the time decreases as child gets older because their speech gets better » Syntactic development: ability to organize words into grammatical sentences  Can be influenced by speakers other than parents (ex. teachers)  Complexity of teacher’s speech was related to how much syntactical growth occurred - Innate processes are now known to play a lesser role and linguistic environment is more richer than previously thought Obstacles to Studying Language - Sounds don’t equal phonemes » Different people can say the same word differently (ex. “B” and “D” almost produce identical patterns on speech spectrograph) » Same people can say the same word but sound different » Speech spectrograph: plots time vs frequency represents auditory sounds of words
More Less

Related notes for PSYCO258

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.