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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

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Blaine Mullins

Chapter 11 – Reasoning, Judgment and Choice Case Study: Colonoscopy - Used to catch signs of cancer » Force air into intestines very painful » Patients rated their discomfort following surgery - Patient B had a longer surgery but rated his discomfort lower » Peak-end task: experience of pain depends on highest level of pain experienced and the pain levels at the end of the procedure » Duration neglect: judgment of pain is unrelated to duration of event feel better if duration is extended as pain subsides Reasoning - Reasoning: thought process that yields a conclusion from premises (statements) - Inductive reasoning: creating general propositions from specific examples » Used in scientific research (ex. gravity) » Various degree of uncertainty » Strength of reasoning depends on how representative the examples are, the number of examples provided and how strong the evidence is Deductive Reasoning - Deductive reasoning: reasoning from a general case and applying it to specifics - Syllogistics reasoning: made of 2 premises and a conclusion (Aristotle) - Validity and truth are unrelated » Validity: whether conclusion follows from the two premises » Truth: whether the premise accurately describes the real world - Categorical syllogisms: refer to quantities includes “all” (includes some), “most”, “some” (at least one) and “none” » Universal affirmative: All A are B (all cows are animals) » Universal negative: All A are not B (no tomatoes are animals)  Opposite is also true (No B are A) » Particular affirmative: Some A are B (some animals are dangerous) » Particular negative: Some A are not B (some animals are not cows  Opposite isn’t true (Some B are not A – some cows are not animals) - Conditional syllogisms: include the words “if” and “then” st » Antecedent: comes after the word “if” (1 proposition) » Consequent: comes after the word “then” (2 proposition) » Valid if conclusion affirms the antecedent or denies the consequent Studying Reasoning - Selection task/Wason card sorting task: 4 card problem based on conditional reasoning each card has a number or letter on each side » Use symbols to eliminate previous knowledge » Want to test a rule: if a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other do this by finding a counterexample that would falsify your rule » Turn over E: if you find an odd number, it will falsify your rule » Turn over F: not a vowel so it doesn’t matter if the other side has an even or odd number » Turn over 2: rule doesn’t say that all even numbers have a vowel on the other side so it doesn’t matter what is on the other side » Turn over 5: if you find an E, it will falsify your rule » Results depend on the context of the cards therefore, there isn’t a single reasoning system or else changing the context would have no effect on performance - Domain-specific inferences: different problems require different procedures » It is evolutionarily advantageous to think adaptively rather than logically - Relational reasoning: involves premises that express relation between items » Transitive relations are expressed using comparative sentences (ex. taller than) - Three-term-series problem: 2 comparative sentences from which a conclusion is drawn » Ex. B is smaller than A and B is large than C A-B-C - Natural deduction system: proposition and deduction rules are used to draw conclusions » Ex. Knight-knave problem » p AND q entails p, q » p OR q and not p entails q » # of errors and amount of time taken to solve the problem is based on the # of inferences needed How Do We Reason? - Logicism: logical reasoning is an essential part of human nature - Practical syllogism: 2 premises point to a conclusion that calls for an action » Common in everyday life (ex. goal setting  in order to achieve that, I must do this) - More than logic is involved because people still make errors regarding validity of argument (ex. affected by emotions) - Effect of believability is high when premise/conclusion are invalid people believe that the conclusion is true in the real world so they see it as valid » Greater effect when invalid statements are involved » Unbelievable/invalid vs. believable/invalid statements have 61% difference of acceptance » Unbelievable/valid vs. believable/valid statements have a 33% difference in acceptance » People look at the conclusion, it is believable, they try to make the premise valid if it isn’t believable, they try to find the problem in the premise - Mental models: we construct them of the situation and make conclusions based on the mental model (Laird) » Focus on how parts are connected (structure is important) » Iconic: relations between parts of the model that correspond to the relations between parts of the situation » Emergent consequences: you get more out of a mental model than you put in (allows you to see new relationships) » Parsimony: people tend to construct the simplest model (only one) - Social contract: inference process has evolved to deal with socia
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