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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCO258
Professor
Blaine Mullins

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Description
Chapter 7 – Imagery Case Study: Time/space synesthesia - Time space: people can imagine a virtual calendar in front of them (outside their body) - Number forms: automatically generate images of number in spatial layout in front of them (occurs when you think about a number) - Picture: form a mental image Mental Imagery - Mental imagery: internal representation that produces a perceptual experience without sensory input (ex. visual imagery) can scan, zoom, rotate and compose - Imagery: easiness by which a word can elicit a mental image - Concreteness: degree to which a word refers to something that can be experienced by the sense (ex. heard, felt, smelled) » More concrete = greater degree of image - Functions: » Solve problems by manipulating images » Predict outcome of actions » Allows you to create mental models to represent situations » Enhances memory » Allows you to navigate (plan which path you’re going to take) » Learn by watching (ex. imagine yourself doing something by mentally rehearsing it) » Improves health (ex. meditating and picturing yourself in a different location) Memory and Imagery - Mnemonic techniques: used to aid memory (ex. imagery) - Method of loci: relate places/locations to images or objects (Yates) » Imagine a large building and put different things in different rooms and recall them by walking through the building » Try to keep images distinctive » One person was able to recall 2000 names using this technique after hearing the list once » Can be used to create a mental shopping list » Organizes separate items into meaningful units - Distinctiveness: more distinctive items are easier to recall (ex. one bizarre item on a list of normal items) » However, if the entire list is made of bizarre items, it doesn’t aid recall » Von Restroff effect: if an item in a set is different than the rest, it is more easily recalled » After lecture, verbatim memory (exactly what prof said) dropped but the gist of the lecture was remember even after 5 days - Humorous items are also remembered better in a list of non-funny items but if all items are humorous, then it makes no difference in recall - Special place strategy: storing items in a location people won’t normally think about (odd locations) » But when you try to remember where you stored something, you are less likely to be able to recall it (also happens for passwords) » The less likely an item is found in a particular location, the less likely you are to remember where it is (ex. keys in the fridge) » No relationship between location and object (unlike method of loci technique where there is) » Metamemory: belief about how our memory works fails in this strategy - Dual-coding theory: there are two ways of representing events » Verbal: describe it using words  Logogens: units that contain info about the use of the word operate sequentially (one word appears after another) » Non-verbal: images without using words  Imagens: contain info that generates a mental image operates simultaneously (can see all parts of the image at once) » Referential connections: links 2 systems words can trigger a mental image and you can describe a mental image using words st - Paired-associated learning task: learn 16 pair of words given 1 word and asked to recall the second » 4 conditions: concrete-concrete, abstract-abstract, concrete-abstract, abstract-concrete » Best results were for concrete-concrete words because they are coded by verbal and non- verbal system (so easier to remember) » Worst results were for abstract-abstract words because they could only be coded verbally - Lexical decision task: indicate whether a stimulus is word or not » Concrete words cause greater activation of left hemisphere than right hemisphere Perception and Imagery - Cognitive dedifferentiation: fusion of perceptional processes that are normally independent (ex. synesthesia, eidetic memory) - Synesthesia: stimulus for one sense triggers another sense » Chromesthesia: coloured hearingexperience colours when hearing an auditory stimuli » Inducer: cue that elicits synesthetic experience (auditory stimulus) » Concurrent: synesthetic response itself » Occurs in 1/200 people (commonly in females and family members) » Improves memory:  Black #s = fastest performance  Congruent: #s were printed in a colour that the synesthetic sees did better than control  Incongruent: #s were printed in a colour different than the one the synesthetic sees led to a significant decrease in performance (were seeing too many different colours) » Each of 5 senses emerged from a single primordial sense (inborn)  Transient connections: connections between different senses that are usually pruned out by apoptosis (programmed cell death)  Synesthesia results from failure to prune transient connections » Strong synesthetes: people susceptible to one sensory modality produces another sensory experience (ex. people experience pain in response to pain) » Cross-modal effects: sensations on modality can be similar to those of others (ex. sneezes are brighter than coughs and sunlight is louder than moonlight) » Weak synesthetes: have cross-modal experience without strong synesthetic experience occurs in most people » Influence how we label our experiences colours that emerged earlier are more commonly used describe experience (ex. black) » Problem:  Concepts (ex. thinking about numbers) also elicits synesthetic response cross- activation of sensory regions isn’t the whole story  Semantic memory may be involved (ex. specific words only produced certain tastes from childhood) - Eidetic memory: images persist for a minute or more after a stimulus disappears » Icon: initial, brief representation of info in a visual stimuli  Persists briefly after stimuli disappears  Requires eyes to be stationary (not common) » Projected out into the external world » Fuses imagery and perception » Image can be scanned and described
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