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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO258
Professor
Blaine Mullins
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12 – Intelligence and Creativity General Intelligence - Predicts academic achievement and work performance » Only accounts for ½ variability in performance intelligent people must also still work hard (start early, labour continuously, never give up a cause) - Crystallized intelligence: what you’ve learned increases throughout life (as you accumulate long term knowledge) - Fluid intelligence: ability to think flexibly increases in youth but levels off as we mature (unchanged by learning) » Drawing out relationships that apply to new situations - Raven progressive matrices: problems that measure general intelligence (find which pattern belongs to the missing square) » Education of relations and correlates: ability to grasp how things are related to each other - Working memory capacity: working memory and general intelligence are related » Central executive is similar to fluid intelligence - Operation span task: shown math problem with the word next to it have to remember the word when presented with the math problem again » Tests memory - Tests for memory and general intelligence are correlated but not perfectly (working memory has also been correlated with other aspects of intelligence) - Neural plasticity: changes in neural function as a result of experience » Allows an organism to adapt to their environment » Increases capacity and improves efficiency » Individual differences are due to differences in adapting also due to genetic variation - Dedicated intelligence: associated with domain-specific knowledge that evolved to solve reoccurring problems - Improvisational intelligence: flexible knowledge that evolved to deal with unique, unpredictable problems (same as general intelligence) » Valuable in evolutionary novel situations Gardner and Multiple Intelligences - Multiple intelligence: intelligence is made of many different abilities (has to follow 8 criteria) - General intelligence was discovered because sampling range of abilities was small - Different types of intelligence correspond to different areas in the brain (these networks interact with each other) - Symbol system: different forms of representation » Ex. language, math, drawing, math each form = different type of intelligences - Prodigies: children who perform at expert level at an early age than normally would be expected » Above average on Stanford-Binet IQ test » Greater short term memory » Need to devote time and practice to develop skills » Require nurturing from parents and family (lots of sacrifices) » Appear in certain disciplines (ex. math) but not in others (ex. literature – requires several specific intelligences) - Developmental history: everyone starts out at the same place but some (not all) reach a high level of competence » Ex. musical, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, mathematical, spatial, personal - Spatial intelligence: making pictures/drawing » Not a linear ability » U-shaped development: start at preconventional, descend to conventional and may rise to reach post conventional  Preconventional: children have high aesthetic pleasure, no perspective bright colours, no constraints, willingness to explore and experiment  Conventional: lose freedom of self-expression because you’re occupied with rules most people stay at this level  Post conventional: no longer bounded by convention, achieve intentionally what child achieved without thinking - Development of music is similar to that of spatial intelligence » Children learn to be musical at a very young age » Age 2: sing i
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