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PSYCO258 (77)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

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Blaine Mullins

Chapter 13 – Personal Cognition  Cognition and Emotions - Emotions effect our cognitive processes - Positive feelings improve creative thinking (ex. eating candy or watching a funny film) » Dopamine: involved in rewards and pleasure increase in dopamine leads to increase in positive effect  Allows switching between sets (flexibility)  Parkinson = low dopamine = hard to change in task selection » Can increase distraction by irrelevant info - Collative stimulus variables: properties of a stimulus that are perceived through comparison with others » Conceptual conflict: provoked by new, complex or surprising situation makes us uncertain about how to respond » Specific exploration: reduces uncertainty look for alternatives to reduce the problem » Diversion exploration: increases uncertainty used for boring or highly predictable stimuli - Wundt curve: plots arousal vs. positive/negative effect » As intensity increases, hedonic values increases continues to rise until a certain point and then begins to fall into negative area » Initial period of being exposed to something may lead to negative effect so you give up before even trying it » Problem: some data contradicts curve familiar things are rated more pleasant than unfamiliar ones - Mere exposure effect: more exposure = more liking » Positive adjectives are used more often (apply to common things) » Negative adjectives are used for less common things » Yoked participant design: see icons and one of pair rates for recognizability and other rates for liking  More exposure = more familiarity = more liking » Liking = affective response to stimuli » Familiarity = cognitive response to stimuli - Emotional and cognitive models are separate but interact with each other » Subliminal stimuli produces greater mere exposure effect - Warm-glow heuristic: interpret liking of something as a sign of previous exposure (even when no such exposure has occurred) - Structural mere exposure effect: we learn underlying structure through mere exposure effect » Ex. can learn grammar underlying string of letters participants like grammatical correct string more Emotions and Memory - Emotions are units/nodes over time, they connect to non-emotional events » Activate other networks strongly - Mood-dependent recall: mood similarities between learning and recall sessions can facilitate recall » Context-dependent recall: info is recalled better in the same context as it was learned - Mood congruence: mood causes selective learning of affective material » Feed sad read sad story remember sad parts - Mood-induction procedure exposes some participants to a set of depressed or neutral statements » Present uncommon homophone (2 words that sound the same but are spelled differently) in a question and ask if they heard the word in a recognition test » Depressed people recognized fewer words - Initiative and depression: depressed people lack initiative to learn and remember info » They’ll remember words more if they are given explicit strategy to use (neutral people use this strategy spontaneously) » Depressed people should be given well-organized tasks that require little initiative » Depressed people are less able to
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