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Chapter 8

Psych 282 behaviour modificationRespondent conditioning chapter 8.docx

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University of Alberta
Karsten Loepelmann

Respondent conditioning: Operant behaviors: controlled by their consequences Operant conditioning: manipulation of the consequences Respondent behavior: are controlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli. Respondent conditioning: manipulation of the antecedent. Defining respondent conditioning: Unconditional responses (UR): elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no prior conditioning had occurred. This response is usually elicited when we subject people to unconditional stimuli (US) (i.e. puff of air into your eyesUSyou blinkUR). So an US produces an UR because often it has a survival value to it. Respondent condition occurs then when neutral stimuli (NS) (i.e. a bell sound) are paired with st nd rd unconditional stimuli (such as food) (so 1 Ring + 2 food3 salivate).As results of this paring for a long time, the NS then elicits an unconditional response (i.e. salvation) without the presence of US (Ring a bellsalivate) Timing of the neutral stimulus and unconditional response: Trace conditioning: NSNS ends USUR (click soundthen after it is done present foodthen the dog salivates) Delay conditioning: NSthen US before the NS has endedUR (click soundpresent food before the clicking sound has endedproduce a UR) Simultaneous conditioning: Both NS+US togetherUR ( food + click sound together) Backward conditioning: US first then NSUR (food first then clicking sound) Trace and Delay are the most effective. Backward is the least effective. The only time NS and US can occur without a close proximaty to each other is taste eversion (I.e. drink milk taste bad because it was expired (NS)you get stomach problem days after (US) and you vomited (UR). Now you don’t drink milk (NSUS) because it no longer taste good) Summary: NS can become CS when they are paired with US together and elicited a CR (before was UR) and the NS and US have to be paired closely together. Higher order conditioning: If NS becomes paired with an already established CS and then this NS become CS (I.e. food(US) salvation(UR). 2 ) Food+ click(NS) salvation. 3 ) click(CS) salvation(CR). Now in higher order we have light(NS) + click(CS) salvation(CR) and then later on just Light(CS)produces salvation(CR). Conditional emotional response: The one year oldAlbert example and the Watson group (see notes). Experiment: loud noise (US)  creates a startled reaction in albert. Then the loud noise and mouse presence were paired and later on the rat become a CS which generate fear response (CER). The sight of Rat became a CS, which elicits a conditional emotional response (CER) such as fear and crying. This is an example of a negative CER but there are also + CER such as happiness producing etc (i.e. contact with the girlfriend(US) creates a positive emotional responses(UR). Now when you smell a perfume like your GF(NSnow CS) this brings in happiness and good feeling (CER). Perfumed is now conditioned to bring in + CER rather then the girldfriend. The experiment also involved operant conditioning. The behavior of reaching to the rat became a punisher ( i.e. startled) and the behavior or crawling away from the rat become escape ( negative reinforcement). This is not an ethnical experiment. Problems: hard to measure overt responses (which need a lot of instrument to get a proper measurement such as measuring muscle tensions for fear).And also there are many covert responses such as happiness and love, which cannot be measured. Extinction and conditional r
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