Operant behaviors: controlled by their consequences
Operant conditioning: manipulation of the consequences
Respondent behavior: are controlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli.
Respondent conditioning: manipulation of the antecedent.
Defining respondent conditioning:
Unconditional responses (UR): elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no prior conditioning had
occurred. This response is usually elicited when we subject people to unconditional stimuli (US) (i.e.
puff of air into your eyesUSyou blinkUR). So an US produces an UR because often it has a survival
value to it.
Respondent condition occurs then when neutral stimuli (NS) (i.e. a bell sound) are paired with
st nd rd
unconditional stimuli (such as food) (so 1 Ring + 2 food3 salivate).As results of this paring for a
long time, the NS then elicits an unconditional response (i.e. salvation) without the presence of US
(Ring a bellsalivate)
Timing of the neutral stimulus and unconditional response:
Trace conditioning: NSNS ends USUR (click soundthen after it is done present foodthen the dog
Delay conditioning: NSthen US before the NS has endedUR (click soundpresent food before the
clicking sound has endedproduce a UR)
Simultaneous conditioning: Both NS+US togetherUR ( food + click sound together)
Backward conditioning: US first then NSUR (food first then clicking sound)
Trace and Delay are the most effective. Backward is the least effective.
The only time NS and US can occur without a close proximaty to each other is taste eversion (I.e. drink
milk taste bad because it was expired (NS)you get stomach problem days after (US) and you vomited
(UR). Now you don’t drink milk (NSUS) because it no longer taste good)
Summary: NS can become CS when they are paired with US together and elicited a CR (before was
UR) and the NS and US have to be paired closely together.
Higher order conditioning:
If NS becomes paired with an already established CS and then this NS become CS (I.e. food(US)
salvation(UR). 2 ) Food+ click(NS) salvation. 3 ) click(CS) salvation(CR). Now in higher order we
have light(NS) + click(CS) salvation(CR) and then later on just Light(CS)produces salvation(CR).
Conditional emotional response:
The one year oldAlbert example and the Watson group (see notes). Experiment: loud noise (US)
creates a startled reaction in albert. Then the loud noise and mouse presence were paired and later on
the rat become a CS which generate fear response (CER). The sight of Rat became a CS, which elicits a
conditional emotional response (CER) such as fear and crying. This is an example of a negative CER
but there are also + CER such as happiness producing etc (i.e. contact with the girlfriend(US) creates a
positive emotional responses(UR). Now when you smell a perfume like your GF(NSnow CS) this
brings in happiness and good feeling (CER). Perfumed is now conditioned to bring in + CER rather
then the girldfriend.
The experiment also involved operant conditioning. The behavior of reaching to the rat became a
punisher ( i.e. startled) and the behavior or crawling away from the rat become escape ( negative
reinforcement). This is not an ethnical experiment.
Problems: hard to measure overt responses (which need a lot of instrument to get a proper
measurement such as measuring muscle tensions for fear).And also there are many covert responses
such as happiness and love, which cannot be measured. Extinction and conditional r