Prompting and transfer of stimuli control chapter 10.docx
University of Alberta
Chapter 10: Prompting and Fading:
Prompting and transfer of stimuli control:
Prompting: helping someone reaches a desirable behavior or action through many
different ways. Example include verbal prompt, gestural prompts, modeling prompts,
physical prompt (guiding someone while holding their hands).
What is prompting?
Are used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in a certain behavior at the
correct time. Usually occur before or during the performance of a behavior. They help
behavior occur as the teacher give reinforcement when a correct behavior occurs as a
result of prompts given. Main function of prompting is for the correct behavior to occur
so it can be reinforced (others no) in the presence of prompting and SD. Then ultimately
on SD creates a response without needing any prompts. Example: Pitcher throw a ball
(SD) + teacher gives instruction▯correctly swing the bat▯hit the ball and provide praise.
What is fading?
The gradual elimination of prompting as the behavior continues to occur in the presence
of SD ( as to give stimulus control over from the prompt to the SD). Pitcher throw a ball
(SD) + teacher NO longer gives instruction▯correctly swing the bat▯hit the ball and
provide praise. Outcome: hit the ball when pitches in future. Another example: child
shown letter CAR (SD) + teacher say “car” ▯ child says car▯praise. Then child shown
letter CAR (SD) + teacher does not say anything (fading slowly)▯child says car▯praise.
Reading is now under stimuli control of the letter (SD). Overall Goals: engage in a
behavior without prompt. Make sure that the fading process is slow (I.e. in steps).
Types of prompts:
Response prompts: Is the behavior of another person that evokes the appropriate
response in the presence of SD. Verbal, gestural, modeling, and physical prompts are all
examples. They involves one person exerting control over another using these different
prompts thus it is very intrusive (try using the least intrusive firs then the most only at the
end. Verbal (least)▯gestural▯modeling▯physica( most intrusive of all)
Verbal: you say, tell, something that helps the person achieve the correct behavior (have
to be achieved). Good because instruction have stimulus control over instruction
following behavior. I.e. saying Throw the ball then you do.
Gestural: Physical moment a gesture of another person. (Note: if the person models the
whole behavior then it is modeling). I.e. this is how you throw▯then you throw. They have
stimulus control over behavior indicated by gesture. I.e. look at the word exit▯then the
person says exit.
Modeling: The person demonstrates the whole behavior and then you copy it. Coach hits
the ball in proper way ▯ then the person then executes all or part of the behavior.
Physical prompts or Physical guidance: another person physical helps another person
to engage in the correct behavior I.e. holding you hands and showing you how to hit. Chapter 10: Prompting and Fading:
Involves handover hand guidance. Effective after all the previous tried since it is the
most intrusive. But you cannot do this for language.
Stimulus prompts: these involves some changes in a stimulus or addition or removal of
a stimulus to make a correct response more likely because you notice SD (more salient)
more and the Sdelta not so much (less salient)
Withinstimulus prompts: involves changing the salience of SD or Sdelta in many
ways (position of SD, shape, intensity (i.e. throwing the baseball at normal speed from
normal distance (easy to see as the intensity of throwing is decreased)▯then you
Extra stimulus prompts: adding a stimulus to help a person make a correct
discrimination (i.e. showing you picture of people hitting the ball). Or putting an X (extra
info added) on child’s right hand to help them find which is the rig