Chapter 5: development and socializations.
When Kinds of Childhood Experiences Differ Across Culture?
• Infants Live in Different Cultures Too: Sleeping arrangements vary across cultures.
• Sharing nighttime with others (cosleeping): European descent middleclass North Americans, infant’s sleep by themselves in
their own bedroom. This is often even on the first day at home. Japanese think that leaving their infants alone at night is
regarded as a form of child abuse. As a default, Japanese kids always stay with their caregivers. this is often same as
Asian/African/Latin Americans as well compare to pure americans.
• The very first experiences of infantcaregiver relationships may be the foundation of cultural variations in interpersonal
relationship. It is possible that might be you don’t have enough room that's why you do cosleeping. This Is true. But there are
other reasons as well? Yes
• Study by Shweder et al. (1995) asked Indian and American adults to decide how various combinations of family members could
be arranged in the bedrooms of a house.
• Procedure: In one version, they were told the house had 3 bedrooms, and the family included a mother, a father, two daughters
(aged 14 and 3), and three sons (aged 15, 11, and 8). Question: if you have three rooms, how do you divide them into three
• The incest avoidance moral is universal (teen ages 15/14 boys and girls should not be allowed to sleep with parents. This is
• European descent middleclass North Americans also share two types of Moral: the “sacred couple,” “The autonomy ideal
(mostly North Americans do this) morals (Son share another room, and all daughter share another room=autonomy and mom and
dad in mom room=sacred couple)
• East Indians share three types of Moral: “the protection of the vulnerable (the young either son or daughter should be with their
parents)” “Respect for hierarchy (older boys are given the status to not sleep with other and given their own space and the
youngers should be together” and “female chastity anxiety” morals (someone should be their always with this teen/14 year old)
• Results: American dominantly selects the first pattern. All boys and all girls should be alone and mom and dad. Indians hade two
patterns. One that is similar to Americans and one that is different (young children’s should be supported, and older daughters
protected and older boys separate). Thus these relationships at night might be the foundation of interpersonal relationships.
Cultural Differences in Preferred Sleeping Arrangements among European Canadians, Chinese Immigrants, and Chinese:
• In China, cosleeping is taken for granted. How about Chinese Immigrants? ( they show it still)
• Is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (Sids) rare among them?
• Results: 80% Chinese in chinaàcosleeping. 85%à European Canadianàseparate sleeping
• Chinese immigrantsà still persistent even if the culture changes but it is a bit weaker. Thus they transmit the traditional
CrossCultural Research on Parenting Interactions
• Study Heidi Keller: Contrasted parenting interactions with 3monthold infants in five cultural contexts: urban middleclass
Germans, urban middleclass Greeks, urban lowerclass Costa Ricans, rural Indian Gujarati, and rural Cameroonian Nso. (she
assumed these culture are all different)
• Researchers made 20 unannounced visits with mothers and infants over a oneweek period and videotaped them for 15minute
intervals. Within these 15minute intervals, detailed behaviors were coded for interspersed 10second intervals. Body, faceto
face contact, and response to both positive and negative signals from the baby and mother reaction to it were recorded.
• Percent of Time in Bodily Contact with Infant: All mothers show much bodily contact. The Nso mothers were observed
carrying the infants in every observed instance. Greeks and Germans showed the least amount of bodily contact.
• Percent of Time in FacetoFace Contact with Infants: All mothers made much facetoface contact. But Greeks and Germans
made considerably more facetoface contact than those from other cultures
• Warmth Shown in Response to Infant’s Positive (i.e. smiling) Signals (Zscores): Compared with other mothers, Greek
mothers showed the warmest response to infant’s positive signals. And Gujarati mothers showed the least warm response.
• Warmth Shown in Response to Infant’s Negative Signals (Zscores): Compared with other mothers, Costa Rican mothers
showed the warmest response to infant’s negative signals.
• Early experiences of infants differ dramatically around the world. People’s minds develop in highly different circumstances.
• Although longitudinal research has yet to be conducted to directly link early infant experiences with adult preferences and
behaviors, it is not unreasonable to expect that these early experiences are critical to shaping people’s development.
• How might some of these early experiences affect people’s development?
Sensitive Periods for Cultural Socialization • SomeAspects of Culture are learned in a Sensitive Window. In particular, some aspects of language are learned in a sensitive
• Asensitive window indicates a biological preparation for the acquisition of the information.
• Humans have evolved such that they learn a language in a particular period of life (from very early, and the sensitivity declines
markedly after puberty). If you are able to communicate well then from evolutionary point of view it is very important for your
Study of Phoneme (sound system of language) Discrimination
• For example, TAKA cannot differentiate between L and R (requires a lot of energy). Japanese have hard time saying F and H.
instead of saying V and B. Rice vs. Lice. Lover vs. Rubber.
• Study compared infants from English speaking and Hindi speaking parents (Werker & Tees, 1984).
• Task was whether infants could discriminate between two Hindi phonemes that are indistinguishable to adult nonHindi speakers.
• Results indicated that English infants younger than 8 months could reliably distinguish between the Hindi phonemes. Indeed,
phonemes from all languages can be discriminated by young infant
• However, by 1012 month of age, the English infants could no longer discriminate between the two Hindi phonemes. They had
learned to categorize sounds into Eng