CHAPTER 6 SELF: ND PERSONALITY
Introduction: Compare Japanese and American gold medalist interviews.
Who am I?
The classic study: TwentyStatements test
Two main “results”:
Roles and Memberships
Kenyans VS Americans VS “Americanized” Kenyans of various degrees.
Independent VS Interdependent Views of the Self
See the self as separate from others with stable traits across the lifespan and across (social) situations.
Perceive self as very unique.
Feel an obligation to publicly advertise themselves as having these attributes.
See Graphic P 201
1. Note that the circle around the individual does not overlap any other circles.
Identities are distinct from others
2. Xs inside circle represent aspects of identity. Larger ones are important
Importantseeming ones (large Xs) lie within individual. 3. Border around the individual is drawn with a solid line.
The self is bounded and stable.
4. Border around the ingroup is dotted, to indicate that it is fluid.
Others can move in and out of the ingroup relatively easily.
Ingroup and outgroup have differences of closeness, but are not fundamentally distinct. (All nonselves are
fundamentally the same)
Focus on how you are connected with others
You are not a distinct entity, but a participant in a larger social unit.
See Graph P 203
1. “Individual” circle overlaps with others.
Experiences and identities are not individual, unique entities.
2. Xs inside circle.
Big, important Xs lie within intersection between individual and close others.
Relationships come in a variety of form and particular roles must be taken.
Note SMALL Xs are in individual only.
3. Dotted line surrounding individual
Identity is fluid, and will change depending on situation.
4. Border separating ingroup and outgroup is solid
Ingroup relationships are selfdefining. They are “fundamentally different” than the outgroup in that respect,
and it is much harder to become an ingroup member.
STUDY: fMRI SelfConcept difference
Question to participants: “How well does this trait describe you or your mother?” Result: Westerners showed different regions of brain activation during task. Chinese showed same regions
of brain activation. Showing that Chinese representations for themselves and their mothers are not distinct
and represent the self concept.
Psychological implications with differences in the selfconcept:
The ways that humans view themselves are CENTRAL to human cognition. It “changes the computer” if
Individualism and Collectivism
These words relate to the type of CULTURE, not the individual.
Culture causes the individual, and the individuals cause the culture.
Where do we find individual and collectivist cultures?
STUDY: Geert Hofestede who gave questionnaires to IBM employees across a looottt of different countries.
Mapped out the world in terms of degree of individualism. INTERDEPENTENT/COLLECTIVISM IS MORE
COMMON IN TERMS OF HEAD COUNT (80%)
There are also pockets of it all over the states (Hawaii, for instance)
Note: Our research comes mostly from independent culture (ESPECIALLY because our research is done in
Universityesque places). So how much do we REALLY know about the world.
Beyond Individualism and Collectivism
Verticalhorizontal social structure
See notes about Hofstede’s work.
A note on heterogeneity of Individuals and cultures
Remember that independent and interdependent are not so much categories, but rather a continuum.
A determinant for how often one feels independent or interdependent Situations that occur in daily life
REMEMBER THAT EVERYTHING WE SAY IS “ON AVERAGE”
Gender and Culture
Women = more interdependent
Men – more independent
Ask men and women from Western Cultures and men and women from Easten cultures to complete
Result: Culture had the effect, not gender. BUT women scored higher on “relatedness” (Not other aspects
of inderdependency). So it’s not full accurate to say that women are more interdependent than men.
Differences in attitudes towards gender equality
Sex Role Ideology questionnaire ▯ Strikingly different views of gender equality around the world.
Interestingly, Men and Women shared similar views within a culture! But USUALLY the male was a little
more against gender equality.
More urbanized or individualistic = more gender equality.
Historical approach to gender norms?
Earth being dug up with a hoe (or similar tool)
Where shifting cultivation is practiced, women do the agricultural work with children nearby.
A large animal uses a plow to turn over the soil Controlling the plow requires lots of muscular strength and bursts of energy. Men typically do it. Also, it
requires more concentration, so children must be elsewhere. WOMEN ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY LOOK
AFTER DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.
WE TEND TO PRESERVE GENDER ROLES BORN FROM AGRICULTRE
Gender “essentialized” approach?
Which gender is more closely tied with an unchangeable essence? Americans tend to view male gender
identity to be more essentialized than female gender identity. A woman can present themselves like a man.
Nbd. But a man can’t really present himself like a woman.
The gender that is essentiallized tends to be associated with more power.
STUDY: Hindus. Brain switching. Not all that important, but skim over p215 maybe.
Some other ways that cultures differ in the selfconcept
What is it: How consistently we act across varied situations
Cultures vary considerably in the degree of their motivation for selfconsistency
STUDY: “Who am I” questionnaire given IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS. (Who was sitting near student)
Japanese VS Americans Postive statements VS Negative statements.
NOTE: Big implication for context in ALL questionnaire studies! Maybe we need to be careful!
A powerful motivator for consistency. When we are inconsistent with ourselves, we get distressed and act to
fix it. Either change behavior or change attitudes.
Changing attitudes is known as “Dissonance Reduction”
Eg: Pick a school out two good choices, suddenly, you’ll find the pros of the good school even stronger, and
the pros of the other school inconsequential.
Dissonance reduction tendencies between Japanese and Cana