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Chapter 8

PSYCO104 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Temporal Lobe, Prospective Memory, Retrograde Amnesia

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Geoff Hollis

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memory: process that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information
- 3 major components: sensory memory, short-term(working) memory, long-term
encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into a neutral code that the brain process
storage: retaining information over time
retrieval: pull information out of storage when we use it
sensory input sensory registers ( encoding, attention ) working memory →( encoding ) ← ( retrieval ) long-term memory
Sensory memory: holds information long enough for it to be recognized, composed of different subsystems(sensory registers), initial
information processors. Visual sensory register(iconic store) Auditory sensory register(echoic store) asking participant to recall different
sets of numbers
Short-term(working) memory: info in sensory memory fades away, through selective attention, a small proportion enters working
Capacity and duration: short term memory-limited amount of info at a time (no more 5-9 meaningful items, 20 secs)
Chunking: combining individual items into larger units
maintenance rehearsal: simple repetition of info
elaborative rehearsal: focusing on the meaning of info/ relating it to other things we already know.
Memory codes(mental image): once leave sensory memory, must be presented by some type of code
[mental image(visual encoding), sound(phonological), meaning(semantic), pattern of movement(motor)]
structural encoding(notice how word looks) phonological encoding(sound of word) semantic encoding(pay attention to meaning)
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putting short-term memory “to work”: working memory 4 components:
1) maintain info in an auditory working memory(phonological loop), repeat name to yourself mentally.
2) visual-spatial working memory(visuospatial sketchpad), temporarily store and manipulate image
3) episodic buffer temporary storage space where info from long term, phonological loop/ visuospatial
subsystems can be integrated, manipulated and made available for conscious awareness.
4) control process, central executive, directs action. decides how much attention to allocate to mental
imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls info from long term memory, integrated the input
Long term memory: can endure for up to a lifetime
serial position effect: recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items
primacy effect reflecting the superior recall of early words, recency effect superior recall of most recent words.
Eortful 付付付付 processing: encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention (rehearsing, making list, )
Automatic processing: encoding that occurs without intention and required minimal attention
level of processing the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered(semantic-deepest)
Maintenance rehearsal involves simple repetition, most useful for keeping information active in short term
inefficient method for bringing about long-term transfer
Elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of information, deeper processing than maintenance rehearsal, more efficient to longterm
: links to life and existing knowledge, meaning of information, organization, imagery
memory is enhanced by associations between concepts (with meaningful hierarchy remembered more)
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