PSYCO333 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: 16Pf Questionnaire, Factor Analysis, Interpersonal Circumplex

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24 Jul 2016
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Chapter 4 Text Notes
The Trait Perspective
Exemplifies:
oPeople are consistent (in actions, thoughts, feelings) over time, situations
oPeople(‘s patterns of traits) differ in many ways (guides this perspective)
Intersection of traits defines their personality
Types and Traits
Hippocrates, Galen thought people could be divided based on excess fluid:
oCholeric (irritable)
oMelancholic (depressed)
oSanguine (optimistic)
oPhlegmatic (calm)
Jung: introverts and extroverts
Typology:
otypes are distinct, discontinuous
These theories have faded
Discontinuous types e.g. a bar graph of extroverts and introverts
oTrait theories / dimensional approach: people have different amounts of
continuous dimensions
Quantitative, qualitative differences
People differ in how much
A bell curve of continuous traits going from extravert to introvert
Nomothetic: traits exist same way in every person
o“nomothetic”  “law”
oeveryone stands somewhere on each trait that exists  comparison
ouniqueness arises from unique combinations
o“oversimplifies” but people who say this still use them
Idiographic: emphasizes each person’s uniqueness
oCh. 2: referred to approach to research that focuses on how one’s experience
varies across situations
oTraits are individualized
oA trait may exist for only one person in the world
oEven if a trait is shared, its connotations, importance may vary
oHow traits are expressed varies
oPeople can’t be compared meaningfully
Factor Analysis
Finds patterns of associations
Complex process, simple concept
1. Decide what and how you want to collect and put in matrix
oIf you have people respond to items, correlate each item which each other
oCollecting many measurements (self-reports or observer ratings)
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2. Factor extraction reduces matrix to underlying commonalities or factors
oeach factor represents shared variations (underlying commonalities) among
several measures
omore variability a factor accounts for, the more important it is
oa factor is the statistical reflection of a trait
naming a factor = naming a trait
3. Compute factor loadings of each item on each factor
o= how much item reflects the factor
olarge # = high loading = item closely linked
o>0.4 r = strong correlationitem “loads onto” the factor
these items say what the factor is about
4. Name the factors
othis is an inference
What Traits Matter?
Factor Analysis  find smallest number of underlying trait dimensions
oIf two qualities (or a pattern) correlate across many people, they may reflect trait
that contributes to both (several)
o“complex correlation”: correlations among many (not just 2) variables
oDoes 3 things:
Reduces multiple reflections of personality to smaller set
Provides base for arguing some traits matter differently
Factors that account for a lot of variability in ratings are important
Helps in developing assessment devices
Keep items that load strongly (greatly reflect the trait)
Repeat and improve
oFlaw: don’t know what measures to collect in first place
Can only tell you what you put into it
There are different approaches . . .
Let Reality Reveal Itself
oEmpirically determine what traits make up personality
A thought: the more words describing a trait, the more important
Lexical criterion of importance
Factor analysis to find out which traits exist
oCattell: 16 dimensions: 16 personality Factor inventory (16PF)
(warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, liveliness, rule-
consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness,
privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance,
perfectionism, tension)
Start from a Theory
oEysenck studied whether phlegmatic, melancholic, sanguine, choleric could be
created by combining high and low levels of two supertraits: extroversion and
neuroticism
oContinuous
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Low Neuroticism High Neuroticism
Introvert Phlegmatic Melancholic
Extrovert Sanguine Choleric
o^the traits interact
ofactor analysis to refine scales
oSupertraits > Traits > Habits > Specific response level
Eysenck: all levels affect behaviour, supertrait is most important
oSecond order factors: whether the factors form factors (correlate in clusters)
o16PF similar to Eysenck when you look at results
obelieved extraversion, neuroticism link to nervous system functioning
opsychoticism: tendency toward psychological detachment from others  hostile,
manipulative, impulsive
Interpersonal Circle
8 patterns, arrayed around 2 dimensions: dominance/status (vertical) and love
(horizontal) (qualities that affect our interactions)
assured-dominant, gregarious-extraverted, warm-agreeable, unassuming-
ingenuous, unassured-submissive, aloof-introverted, cold-hearted, arrogant-
calculating
(like Eysenck), Wiggins: diverse personalities arise from combinations of values on
two dimensions
extraverted and introverted appear but are not fundamental dimensions
Five-Factor Model: Basic Dimensions of Personality?
oBig Five: Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to
Experience / Intelligence
oDiverse data across culture, age, language, relationships, even other animals, other
methods (observer ratings, behavioural)
oFLAWS: clearest in Western languages
What are they?
oInterpretation differences
oDepends on items in study (depends on measures)
oEach factor is a piece of music which share a theme but vary
oLots of agreement for “neuroticism” (emotional stability)
oLow agreeableness = “solve conflict” by displaying power, experience more conflict
oConscientiousness = will (to achieve), constraint, responsibility
oLast factor: largest disagreement
oDifferences in measures
oOpenness to experience: imaginative side of intellect but not logical side. Also
culture correlates with intelligence.
oOpenness and intellect may rely on different sides of brain
Reflections of Five Factors in Behaviour
More recently, shift:
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