PSYCO333 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Statistical Inference, Descriptive Statistics, Random Assignment

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24 Jul 2016
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Chapter 2 Text Notes
Methods in the Study of Personality
Gathering Information
Introspection – observe self
Observe others
oLess prone to error
oMay be misinterpreted
Depth (1/few people)
oPersonology: understand whole person, not parts
Promotes case studies
Over time, repeated observation, unstructured interviews
Pros: natural setting, follow what seems interesting
oExperience sampling / diary studies
Over time
Repeated prompting for self-report
Less opportunity for distortion in memory
Idiographic method (idiosyncratic): a lot of info about one person, look for
patterns across diff situations
Generality (many people)
oGenerality/generalizability – how widely a conclusion can be applied to other
people
oCollege students have incomplete sense of self
oUSA and western Europe popular for personality studies
oA continuum
Either know a lot about a small amount of people or a little about a large
amount of people
Relationships among Variables
Variable: dimension along which there are variations
Keep in mind: Conclusions about relationships involve the whole variable, not just one
end
oCan’t study low self-esteem by only looking at people with low self-esteem
2 kinds of variable relationships: correlation and causation
Correlation
oWhether 2 variables go together (in what direction and how strongly)
oMeasures all variables, doesn’t manipulate
oNaturally occurring differences
oDirection (positive or negative/inverse)
oStrength: degree of accuracy with which you can predict values on one
dimension from values on the other
r: correlation coefficient
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