PSYCO333 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12-13: Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Connectionism

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24 Jul 2016
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CHAPTER 12 TEXT NOTES
THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
How people resent experiences mentally, make decisions
2 assumptions:
o1. Critical to understand how people make sense of the information around them
info comes to us in bits but we see it as connected (a wall, a song, an
impression)
integrate + organize
o2. Life is made of decisions
conscious and unconscious
reflects personality
memory  decisions
George Kelly:
oPeople are implicit scientists
oThere is more info than you can use
oImpose order
oInferences
oConserves resources
Representing Your Experience of the World
How do people organize, store, retrieve memories (of experiences)?
Personal Construct Theory: Foreshadowing the Cognitive Perspective
Experience = reality + organization
Personality = organization of mental structures through which reality is viewed
George Kelly
oEach person’s worldview is unique
oIgnored cognitive revolution but sparked it
Personal constructs
oTheories of reality
oPeople don’t experience world directly – through lens of constructs
oAll events open to multiple interpretations
oWords don’t have the same meaning to all people (or at least we can’t be sure)
Schemas and Their Development
Schema: mental organization of information (knowledge structure). Categories.
ocreated from repeated events
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oorganized
osometimes provide meaning
ofor any schema (category) there are exemplars (examples) and a sense of that
category as a whole (prototype)
prototype either best actual or idealized (averaged)
ocollection of bits is not the thing itself
schema is the glue that holds the bits together
orecognize new experiences (perception = incoming + existing schemas)
fuzzy set: schema defined vaguely by relevant but not necessary criteria
omore criteria met = more likely that it’s in the category
oif no required criteria, members can vary
Effects of Schemas
easy to put new info in memory
oVelcro (new info sticks to it)
oLook at houses at buyer instead of robber
oMore likely to remember what confirms your expectation
oDefault: you assume it’s true unless you’re told otherwise
Bring default info from memory to fill gaps
Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Scripts, and Procedural Knowledge
Semantic memory organized by meaning
oObjects, concepts
Episodic memory:
oMemory for events, experiences
Scripts: well-defined sequences that tell us what to expect, do in certain situations
oborn from many episodes
oprototype of event
oa type of schema
most things are coded as semantic and episodic
feelings and schemas
ofeelings can evoke certain schemas
e.g. threat
procedural knowledge: knowledge about the process of doing, rather than perceiving
and understanding
ospecific overt behaviour or mental manipulations
Socially Relevant Schemas
social cognition
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ohow does the process for forming categories apply to socially meaningful stimuli?
oGender roles, social situations, social relations, etc.
Complexity of schemas can differ
Self-Schemas
Similar to self-concept
Tells you where to look for new info
Bias recall, twist memories to fit how you see yourself now
Large and complex, emotional, trait and concrete behaviour
oNot everyone’s self-schema is as complex
Self-complexity: being self-complex would mean different self-aspects distinct
oPeople lower in self-complexity  problems in one domain bleed into other
domains
oThinking of self in contextualized way lessens emotionality to a failure
oThinking about self may  self-complexity
oSelf = family of self-schemas
Possible selves: People have selves they expect to become, like to become, afraid of
becoming, disliked, should be
oMotivators
Entity vs. Incremental Schemas
Ability is entity (have more or less but doesn’t change), or increment (increase through
experience)
Entity:
oTask is about proving their ability
oIf they do poorly, get distressed, want to quit
Incremental:
oPerforming is about extending ability
oIf they do poorly, change to increase ability
Schemas guide search for new info.
oEntity: notice and remember cues of consistency
oIncremental: notice and remember cues of change
Attribution
Attribution: inferring cause of event (automatic)
oRely on schemas (use more info than is present)
oUsing diff schemas  diff attributions
oSuccess and failures
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