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Chapter 8

Sociology Chapter 8.doc

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Jana Grekul

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Chapter 8: Social control Social control: Techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society Sanctions: penalties of rewards for conduct concerning a social norm  Informal- fear, ridicule  Formal- Jail sentences, fines Conformity: going along with peers, individuals with no special right Obedience: compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure  Milgrams shock experiment- showed that most of us would obey orders to shock subjects; Pointed out that in the modern industrial world we are accustomed to submitting to impersonal authority figures whose status is by title or uniform, because we see the authority over the individual, we shift our responsibility for our behavior to the authority figure. Informal social control: casual enforcement of norms  Smiles, laughter, raised brow, ridicule, etc Formal social control: carried by authorized agents, the last resort when socialization and informal sanctions are ineffective in obtaining desired behavior  Police, judges, etc Law: governmental social control (Formalized norms)  Reflects continually changing standards of right and wrong, how violations are determined and how sanctions are to be applied Socialization primary source of conforming and obedient behavior, we have internalized such norms as good and committed to observing them, people are socialized both want to belong and to fear being viewed as deviant. Binge drinking First year students, males and students who live on campus drink more than others, the number of cases has been increasing and affecting younger classes.. Deviance and conformity duality, deviant to standards of conduct in academic standings (deaths of alcoholism) conformity to peer culture especially in frats and sororities, which are social centers on campus. Universities try to control this by social control, banning kegs, close frats and sororities, encourage liquor retailers to sell less, but still promote organizes who promote “all your can drink” parties. Control theory: our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms. Family friends induce us to follow mores and folkways Socialization develops our self-control so that we done need further pressure to obey social norms. Media focuses on crime and disorder, but most of society conform and obey norms. Deviance: behavior that violates the standards of conduct of a group or society  Gamblers, mentally ill, late for class, jeans @ wedding Beauty myth: exaggerated ideal of beauty, beyond the reach of all but a few females, to shed their deviant image and conform to unrealistic norm, females become consumer with adjusting appearance Deviance involves violation of group norms which may/may not be formalized into law, not always negative (ie. Speaking our against racism/sexism) Deviance is subjected to social definition within a society at a time People of great status and power can deviantize or define what is acceptable and deviant, those without people/marginalized by society, cannot participate in the deviantizing (ie. Cigarette smoking and companies) Stigma: labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups  Sex offender registry Crime does not always stigmatize (ie homeless and in getting a job) Some stigma don’t carry penalties  In the world of technology, the internet started with uncivil behavior because of no norms, no regulations and anonymity  Pirating music is acceptable but not DvD’s and CD’s, individuals think they are fighting unfair prices Social perspectives on Deviance Functionalist Deviance is a common part of human existence; Deviance defines the limits of behavior Dirkheim: punishments define acceptable behavior and contribute to stability Anomie: loss of direction felt when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective occurs in period of social change (ie. Economic collapse) Mertain’s strain theory: success is measured by money and society offers instructions to pursue success, (school, homework) when people don’t have the resources to achieve cultural goals, they experience strain and deviate to resolve their situations. Some turn to deviance to achieve success (is. Gangs). There must some consensus regarding accepted cultural goals and legitimate means for attaining them. Anomie theory of Deviance Mode Institutionalized Societal Goal Description means (Hard (Acquisition of Work) Wealth) Non-deviant Accept Accept Conformist Deviant- Reject Accept Steals Innovation Deviant- Accept Reject Works as a Ritualism way of life Deviant- Reject Reject Given up Retreatism Deviant- Replace w/ new Replace w/ new Militia, rebel Rebellion means goals against norm Internationalist Cultural Transmittion: Humans learn how to behave in social situations, no natural innate manner in which people interact with one another; one learns criminal behavior by interacting with others, not just techniques but also motives drives and nationalizations of a criminal.  Interactions with primary group/ significant others, people acquire definitions of (im)proper behavior Differential associations: process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules  People are likely to engage deviance behavior if they are part of a group, subculture that is deviant Routine activities theory: criminal victimization increases then motivated offenders and suitable targets converge (ie. Vacant houses) Labeling theory Why are certain people viewed as delinquents, while others (who do the same) are not? Example: Saints and roughnecks, although they did similar acts, roughnecks are seen as deviants because they were lower socially then the saints “Deviant behavior is behavior that people label, it is the response to and act, not behavior itself that determines deviance.” L
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