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Chapter 9

Sociology Chapter 9.doc

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University of Alberta
Jana Grekul

Chapter 9: Stratification and Social mobility 4 general systems of stratification Slavery  Most extreme social inequality  Enslaved individuals are owned by other people who treat these people as property  Today UN prohibits slavery however many places still have it  Contemporary version is human trafficking Castes  Hereditary ranks that are usually religiously dictated tend to be fixed and immobile  Ie. Hinduism in Indian and other countries  India-4 major castes, 5 is the outcastes (the untouchables/dalit)  Caste membership is ascribed status, and castes are sharply defined  Caste system has been eliminated in urban areas because of urbanization, but remains in rural areas Estates  Required peasants to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and services  As it progressed, priesthood emerged along with merchants and groups of people whose wealth did not depend on land ownership  Estate system ended and class system of stratification came Social Classes  Social ranking based on economic position in which achieve characteristics can influence social mobility  Imprecisely defined and one can have social mobility  Danial Rossides 5 class model: upper class, middle upper class (ie Doctors), lower middle class (teachers), working class (electricians) and lower class  Shrinking middle class due to disappearing opportunities for little education, global competition, dependence on temporary work force, new growth industries and non union workplace Karl Marx’s view of class differentiation  Social relations in capitalism  Bourgeoisie exploit proletariat  To revolt the proletariat must develop: Class-consciousness: subjective awareness of common vested interest and the need for collective political action to bring social change 
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