Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Sociology (224)
SOC225 (51)
Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Organized Crime

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Bryan Hogeveen

16: Organized Crime 04:28 organized crime is distinguished by how crimes are carried out and the goal of these crimes criminal activity is organized if perpetrated by group of people who conspire together on a continuing and secretive basis with the goal of obtaining financial or other material benefit Defining Organized Crime criminal code of Canada defines a criminal organization as a group that is composed of three or more persons in or outside Canada has as one of its main purposes or main activities the facilitation or commission of one or more serious offences that, if committed would likely result in direct or indirect receipt of material benefit or financial benefit by group or any members of the group eleven fundamental traits of criminal organization, need six to be deemed a criminal organization for law enforcement and prosecution purposes collaboration of more than two people each with own appointed tasks for a prolonged or indefinite period of time using some form of discipline and control suspected of the commission of serious criminal offences operating at an international level using violence or other means suitable for intimidation using commercial or businesslike structures engaged in money laundering exerting influence on politics, the media, public administration, judicial authorities, or the economy determined by the pursuit of profit and/or power Characteristics of Organized Crime core characteristics divided into four categories structural/organizational, institutional, commercial, behavioral Structural/organizational characteristics: two or more people involved conspire to commit serious illegal acts a systematic pattern to the relationship of the offenders associational networks held together by close personal relationships among members, ex. Italian mafia by family and ethnicity entrepreneurial model bond less personal and determined by business interests specialization/division of labor insulation against enforcement and prosecution specialized modes and channels of communication transnational in scope transnational organized crime (TOC) coordinated and conducted across national borders Institutional characteristics: continuity/continuing enterprise – groups designed to last beyond the life of current membership career criminals – sometimes require lifetime membership motivation – non-ideological stance distinguishes criminal organizations from terrorist groups in which illegal activities driven by goal of social and political change sophistication – computer technology can be indicator cybercrime are illegal acts in which a computer and a network are central to committing the crime and the target of the crime limited or exclusive membership recruitment secrecy Commercial characteristics: profit-oriented criminal activities consensual and predatory criminal activities consensual crime where no victim exists, two or more individuals voluntarily engage in illegal transaction predatory crime in which victim suffers direct physical, emotional or financial loss extortion – protection rackets where an offender unlawfully obtains money, properties or services through an individual through coercion and intimidation human trafficking curren
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