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SOC241Section2Textbooknotes.pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC241
Professor
Leslie Hayduk
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC 241: Textbook notes for Section 2 Baumeister & Bushman ­ Social Psychology and Human Nature Pages: 45 to 58, 71 ­ 76, 117 ­ 128, 143 Page 45 to 58 People are Social animals: people seek connections to others and prefer to be around people Also Cultural animals: need culture, use it everyday. Most animals maybe have a bit of culture (alpha male, travelling in packs), but not to the degree humans do. ● “culture is a better way of being social. Being social, and thus being cultural, is a biological strategery. Culture ● “culture is thus an advanced way of being social” (45) ● “Culture is an information based system, involving shared understandings and praxis, that enable groups of people to live together in an organized fashion” (47) ● various cultures do similar things, but do them differently (sleep: common to use alarm clock and have coffee in US, in Mexico common to have a midday nap, some cultures disapprove of coffee etc. to help wake up/sleep; Language: similar, lot of “borrowed” words) Important features of culture 1. Shared Ideas ­ no individual has culture by themself. If people belong to the culture, they probably have enough in common that they can do things together. 2. Culture is a system ­ network that links people. 3. Culture as Praxis ­ shared way of doing things (ex. value of credit card, job interviews) 4. Meaningful Information ­ language, adjust behaviour based on information Nature and culture shape each other ● Influence of Nature on Culture: cultures that don’t supply or prohibit basic needs don’t last long; risk of disease (higher risk, more pressure to conform/behave and work as a group) ● Influence of Culture on Nature: language (evolution has favoured humans that can speak well) ● Co­evolution: nature and culture shape each other and change together Duplex mind: idea that the mind has two processing systems ● Freud: conscious ego and unconscious ● Current: automatic and deliberate ● Automatic System: handles the mundane tasks (importing, organizing, and categorizing information), intuition, unintentional ● Deliberate system: conscious, turns off when you sleep, “figure it out”, reasoning, can override automatic system 71 ­ 76 The Self Functions ● claiming/sustaining place in cultural system, morals, etc. ● Three main parts: ○ Self­knowledge ­ self­awareness, set of beliefs a
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