SOC 241: Textbook notes for Section 3
Baumeister & Bushman Social Psychology and Human Nature
Pages: 3744, 5869, 71116, 151187, 315319, 329334, 366369, 390391
● reproduction is key for survival
● theory of evolution, natural selection.
● nature and social behaviour are intertwined.
Pages 58 69
● two systems: automatic and deliberate
● Automatic System: handles the mundane tasks (importing, organizing, and categorizing
information), intuition, unintentional
● Deliberate system: conscious, turns off when you sleep, “figure it out”, reasoning, can override
● Social Conscience oftens wins over selfish impulse (morality in small groups, law in large
● culture = “general store” of information
● Study: Asch people rely more on information from others than their own senses
Pages 71 116
● claiming/sustaining place in cultural system, morals, etc.
● Three main parts:
○ Selfknowledge selfawareness, set of beliefs about oneself, standards
○ Interpersonal self/public self connects people socially to others, creates a persona for
certain situations, norms etc.
○ agent self/executive function makes choices, exerts control
Independent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what makes the self different from others
Dependent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what connects the self to other people
Social Roles: self has to gain social acceptance
Self Esteem, Self Knowledge
● looking glass self → learn about self from others
● selfhandicapping: putting obstacles in the way of success
● overjustification effect: tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish when external rewards are
● phenomenal self/ working selfconcept: active part of selfknowledge ● selfconcept is likely to change to be consistent with public self
● selfserving bias: claim credit for success, deny blame for failure
● Culture is a network of meaning, people act based on meaning.
● Two steps of choosing: discarding/eliminating/narrowing down options, then careful comparison
● Influences on choice
○ Risk Aversion: people are more affected by possible losses than possible gains
○ Temporal discounting: what happens right now weighs more than what might happen in
the future (short term over long term)
○ The Certainty Effect: tend to place emphasis on definite outcomes
○ Keeping options open: postpone decisions
● Why do people sometime choose not to decide?
○ status quo bias want to keep things the same
○ omission bias tendency to choose whatever doesn't require any action
○ Anticipated regret, too many options, not enough options (options aren’t good enough)
○ Reactance Theory
■ idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to
reclaim or reassert them.
■ people desire to have freedom of choice and have a negative reaction if that
freedom is reduced somehow (ex. when making something illegal makes it