ZOOL 452 – Notes on the papers that were read throughout the semester
By: Victory Obiefuna
1. January 7Maintenance of parasites in the laboratory (MB)
a. In vitro cultivation and characterization of axenic amastigotes of
i. Review on how Leishmania amastigotes are cultured and how the
infective capabilities that they have are maintained after passaging
them and growing them as lab cultures.
b. Largescale growth of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave
i. Review on how Plasmodium falciparum merozoites can now be
cultures in wave bioreactors. The parasites do lose their
c. Artificial feeding of Ixodid ticks
i. Review on what has been tried in order to culture ixoxid ticks.
Different artificial feeding apparatuses have been tried. Nothing
really works too well.
d. In vitro culture of strobilar stage of Echinococcus granulosus (sheep
i. Review: discusses the methods of culturing E. granulosus in vitro.
Also describes appropriate storage, transport, and sterile dissection
of the hydatid cyst material.
2. January 9Diagnosis of parasitic infections (MB)
a. Diagnostic value of noninvasive biomarkers for stagespecific diagnosis
of hepatic fibrosis in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica
i. Aim of the study: find biomarkers for schistosomiasis japonica
with varying stages of liver fibrosis as determined by liver biopsy.
Interested in using these biomarkers to diagnose schistosomiasis
japonica. ii. Methods: 84 S. japonicum infected individuals, who were
clinically diagnosed as having advanced schistosomiasis with
hypersplenism (enlarged spleen), had their livers biopsied and
theier blood and serum biomarker tests done to determine if there
was a correlation between elevated/lower levels of the markers.
1. Critiques: not enough people to determine that the
correlations that were seen were not related to chance…
Control group is quite small. Did they find out if the people
in the control group had previously been uninfected with S.
iii. Results: WBC, RBC, HB, PLT, and AL levels were lower in the
infected patients than in the control AST, ALT, and TB levels were
elevated in the infected patients who had fibrosis relative to the
1. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were shown to be
a good predictor for diagnosis of liver fibrosis caused by S.
b. Automated malaria diagnosis using pigment detection
i. Review: talks about how haemozoin, which is a breakdown
product that is produced after the metabolism of haemoglobin, can
be detected during a routine blood test to determine if a person is
infected with a malarial parasite or not. Possible source of false
positives: the test may sense haemozoin in WBCs that naturally
c. Identification of Theileria uilenbergi immunodominant protein for
development of an indirect ELISA for diagnosis of ovine theileriosis
i. Theileriosis is a protozoan disease that restricts the development of
animals in the livestock industry. Disease is caused by Theileria
spp., which are transmitted by the ixodid Heamaphysalis ticks.
ii. Aim: development serological tools as a means of integrated
control of the disease. Identification by using certain proteins. iii. Result: TuIP was identified. Can be detected using ELISA with
high sensitivity and specificity. No crossreactivity was seen.
Circulating antibodies for TuIP were detected in the sera collected
from endemic regions.
d. Nanobodies, a promising tool for speciesspecies diagnosis of Taenia
i. Aim: Use nanobodies, which are camelidderived singledomain
antibodies, specific for T. solium cysticercosis to develop
ii. Results: The nanobodies did not crossreact with any of the other
species. Their target protein was a diagnostic glycoprotein called.
Ts14, but they also reacted to proteins in this class of molecule.
Nanobodies were highly specific to the target protein… this is
3. January 14 Parasite life cycle stages living outside hosts (AS)
a. Freeliving endohelminth stagesat the mercy of environment conditions
i. Review: discusses all of the things that cercariae of trematodes
have to face in the wild. Namely, environmental variables,
b. Tolerance to low temperatures of domestic and sylavatic Trichinella spp.
in rat muscle tissue
i. Aim of the study: to investigat the tolerance of wellcharacterized
domestic and sylvatic Trichinella species in rate muscle tissue to
low temperatures (18, 5, and 5 degrees Celsius)
ii. Methods: Different sylvatic and domestic strains were used. T.
native, spiralis, pseudospiralis, murelli, and nelsoni. Rats were
infected with larvae (2000 larvae per rat. One isolate per rat). Rats
were necropsied at different time points post inoculation. Bags
containing the eviscerated flesh of the rats that were necropsied
were stored in fridges/freezers of the temperatures stated above. Bioassay was done to determine the infectiveness of each larva
from each isolate in each different temperature.
iii. Results: T. nativa did the best. Things that don’t do well in the cold
and are endemic to the warmer regions (eg. T. nelsoni) did rather
poorly. T. nelsoni was the only one that was not able to withstand
mild freezing. Most of the strains are fine as long as they stay in
the rat musculature. How does this apply to other animals?
c. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on an intertidal trematode parasite: an
assessment of damage and protection
i. Aim of the study: investigate the routes of damage of DNA, as
well as the potential protective mechanisms available to the
cercariae of the Maritrema trematode during the freeliving phase
when they are exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
ii. Methods: Cercariae were treated with UV radiation. Presence of
the UV absorbing molecules (MAAs) was detected in the
sporocysts of the snail host. Extent of oxidative stress to the
cercariae was assessed & the relative concentration of CPDs per
megabase of DNA was measured after exposing cercariae to
ambient conditions. Infectivity and survival assays were also
iii. Results: MAAs are in more abundance when there is more UVA
and UVB around. (read more on this a little)
d. Agedependent survival and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
i. Aim: use cultures to find the relationship between the post
emergence age of S. mansoni cercariae and their capacity to infect
the human skin surface. Also wish to determine the age
dependency of cercarial infectivity and survival as well as the
temporal dynamics of spontaneous and skininduced tail loss by
ii. Results: As the cercariae got older, they died more. As the
cercariae get older, they attach more poorly to the skin. 4. January 21Parasites living on the surface of hosts (MB)
a. Tickborne infectious diseases of dogs
i. Review: describes all of the tickborne infectious disease of dogs.
b. Enzymes released from Lepeophtheirus salmonis in response top mucus
from different salmonids
i. Introduction: the ectoparasite, L. salmonis, feeds on the mucus
that is on the surface of the salmonids when it is in its chalimus
stages. Otherwise, it does spend a majority of its time on the
surface of the fish. Mucus layer is the first site of interaction
between host and pathogen and the first potential line of defence
for these hosts.
ii. Aim: determine the response of the ectoparasite to mucus from
salmonids with differing susceptibilities to infection and a nonhost
iii. Method: Salmonids and other fish were incubated with the
ectoparasites. Mucus that was made by the fish later went through
iv. Results: the low molecular weight (LMW) proteases, which were
released by the ectoparasite, were present as multiple bands on a
zymogram in contrast to a single protease band in coho salmon or
rainbow trout mucus. There were different levels of release when
the ectoparasite was paired with different kinds of fish, but WAY
more LMW proteases were released when the coho salmon and
rainbow trout were around.
1. Resistance of coho salmon to L. salmonis infection may be
due to agents in their mucus that bock the secretion of these
LMW proteases or factors may exist in the mucus of
susceptible species that stimulate their release.
c. Experimental evidence for a hierarchy of mate and hostinduced cues in a
fish ectoparasite, Argulus coregoni i. Aim: to investigate the ability of adult ectoparasitic Argulus
coregoni to detect mate and hostfinding signals and tested the
hierarchy of these cues.
ii. Methods: Used a Ymaze arena to give cues to the parasite and
compare the responses to the cues.
iii. Results: Female and male parasites that were exposed to the odour
of rainbow trout and adult virgin males were exposed to female
odour showed a significant directional response towards these
iv. Both males and females responded to hostrelated and materelated
cues.( see the discussion for details)
d. Salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks inhibits production of
interferongamma by upregulation of interleukin10
i. Aim: Study the impact of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland extract
(SGE) on the production of mouse cytokines.
ii. Results: SGE suppressed the productin of IFNgamma through the
upregulation of IL10. Extract components are immunomodulatory.
5. January 28Protozoan parasites living in the gastrointestinal tract
a. Irritable bowel syndrome: a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and
importance of their detection and diagnosis
i. Review: Contains a lot of speculation on what could be causing
b. Transcriptional changes in Giardia during hos