Social Trends Social change and its
Chapter 3 impact on business.
The responsibilities a
Managers are adapters to, rather than agents of, change. Social Responsibility business has to its
Ethics: a set of moral standards for judging whether something is right or wrong
- social factors The growing importance
- attitudes (beliefs: religion, family, government's role in providing social services) Ethics of ethical practices by
- values (honesty, job satisfaction, materialism, convenience, simplicity, etc.) business.
- lifestyles (ways in which consumers live, use time, and spend money) ! Growth of Component Lifestyles
Simple life: reduce stress, buy less ! Increase in Two-Income Families
Component lifestyle: we become multidimensional, and each component contributes to the unique goods and
services we use
Component lifestyle: a lifestyle made up of a complex set of interests, needs and choices
Because of fast paced lifestyles, we are overworked, tired and stressed (poverty of time). We look to gain control of
out time, and as consumers, we place high value on Convenience and health.
Women in the Workforce
• Dual income families result in increased purchasing power
• Working women most greatly affects marketing
• Women inﬂuence or make 80% of all purchasing decisions
• Demography: the study of people's vital statistics, such as their age, gender, races and ethnicity, and location
• Generation Y: Canadians born between about 1977 and 1997
• Aka Echo Boomers or Millennium Generation
• Most ethnically and socially diverse generation
• Generation X: Canadians born between 1964 and about 1977
• First generation of latchkey children (products of dual-career households or, in roughly half the cases, divorced
or separated parents)
Inﬂuences decisions to marry and start families later than their parents
• Xers are motivate by family and friends. Their parents were driven by career success and wealth accumulation
• Xers are the ﬁrst generation that will not live as well as their parents
• Baby boomers: Canadians born between 1946 and 1964
Younger boomers in their 40s and early 50s have spending directed by their children and have the highest
average household incomes and spending of any group
• Older boomers" ages 55 and above" are mostly empty nesters
2010: 25% of employees retirement age, but the number of people who retire at he 62 or 65 has been declining due
to health advances, ﬁnancial reasons (longer life expectancy = possibly outliving money), and satisfaction of working
and feeling productive.
Multiculturalism: the fundamental belief that all citizens are equal regardless of their racial or ethnic background
Factors Inﬂuencing Individual Business Ethics
Utilitarianism: a philosophy that focuses on the consequences of an action to determine whether it is right or wrong,
and holds that an action that effects the majority adversely is morally wrong
• "People should act so as to generate the greatest good for the greatest number
• Utilitarianism always has winners and losers
Some "costs" although small relative to the potential good, are so negative that some segments of society ﬁnd
them unacceptable (breaking animal backs for spinal injury research)
• Individual Rights
• Human rights implies that certain rights are conveyed at birth and cannot be arbitrarily taken away
• Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
• Justice: what is considered fair according to the prevailing standards of society; in the 21st century, an equitable
distribution of the burdens and rewards that society has to offer
• Democratic: "Equal pay for equal work". Communist: justice would be best served by a society in which
burdens and rewards were distributed to individuals accords to their abilities and their needs, respectively.
• Recognizing Unethical Business Activities
▯ Chapter 3
Stages of Ethical Development
>Preconventional ethics: a stage in the ethical development of individuals in which people behave in a childlike
manner and make ethical decisions in a calculating, self-centers, selﬁsh way, based in the possibility if immediate
punishment or reward; aka self-centered ethics
>Conventional ethics: the second stage in the ethical development of individuals in which people move from an
egocentric viewpoint to consider the expectations of an organization or society; aka social ethics
>Postconventional ethics: the third stage in the ethical development of individuals in which people adhere to the
ethical standards of a mature adult and are less concerned about how others view their behaviour than about how
they will judge themselves in the long run; aka principled ethics
*Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.
2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work.
3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer ﬁles.
4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.
5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.
7. Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.
8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output.
9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are
10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.
Unethical Business Activities:
1. Taking things that don't belong to you
2. Saying things you know aren't true
3. Giving or allowing false impressions
4. Buying inﬂuence or engaging in a conﬂict of interest
5. Hiding or divulging information
6. Taking unfair advantage
7. Committing improper personal behaviour
8. Abusing another person
9. Permitting organizational abuse
10. Violating rules
11. Condoning unethical actions Philanthropic
How Organizations Inﬂuence Ethical Conduct Economic
- Lead by Example
- Offer Ethics Training Programs
- Establish a formal Code of ethics: a set of guidelines prepared by a ﬁrm to provide its employers with the knowledge
of what the ﬁrm expects in terms of their responsibilities and behaviour toward fellow employees, customers,