ch. 4.pdf

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University of Calgary
Entrepreneurship and Innovation
ENTI 201
Norman Althouse

CHAPTER 4 Information technology (IT): the equipment and techniques used to manage and process information. Chief information officer (CIO): an executive responsible for managing all information resources and processes in an organization Knowledge worker: a worker who develops or uses knowledge, contributing to and benefiting from information used in performing various tasks including planning, acquiring, searching, analyzing, organizing, storing, programming, producing, distributing, marketing, or selling functions. Information system (IS): The hardware, software, people, data, etc., that provide information about all aspects of a firmʼs operation Management information system (MIS): the methods and equipment that provide information about all aspects of a firmʼs operations • Provide information about a firmʼs operations • Provide managers with information needed to make decisions • Help managers categorize and identify ideas that result in operational and cost benefits • Differentiate between data and information Database: an electronic filing system that collects and organizes the data and informations Computer network: a group of two or more computer systems linked together by communications channels to share data and information Client:The application that runs on a personal computer or workstations • • Server: Manages network resources or performs special tasks Local area network (LAN): a network that connects computers at one site, enabling the computer users to exchange data and share the use of hardware and software from a variety of computer manufacturers Wide area network (WAN): a network that connects computers at different sites via telecommunications media such as phone lines, satellites, and microwave • The Internet is essentially a worldwide WAN. Several forms of WANs, such as intranets, virtual private networks, and extranets, use Internet technology. • Wireless WAN (WWAN) - when you use your cell phone. Similar to wired LAN and WAN except that they use radio frequency signals to transmit data. • Approximate radius: 150 metres indoors and 300 metres outdoors, which can be extended with antennas, transmitters, and other devices. The wireless devices communicate with a wired access point into the wired network. • Intranet: an internal, corporate-wide area network that uses Internet technology to connect computers and link employees in many locations and with different types of computers • private corporate network WANs • • Firewall: prevents unauthorized access • Benefits- administration intranets(HR) Enterprise portal: a customizable internal website that provides proprietary corporate information to a defined user group, such as employees, supply chain partners, or customers - Customizable • Business to employee (B2E) • Business to business (B2B) • And business to consumer (B2C) More companies are turning to portal technology to provide: • A consistent, simple user interface across the company; • Integration of disparate systems, and multiple sets of data and information; • A single source for accurate and timely information that integrates internal and external information; • Efficiency (time, cost savings through the elimination of “information intermediaries”); • Improved communications within the company and with customers, suppliers, dealers, and distribution CHAPTER 4 Wi-Fi: wireless fidelity Virtual private networks (VPNs): private corporate networks connected over a public network, such as the Internet. VPNs include strong security measures to allow only authorized user to access the network • Used to connect 2 or more private networks (such as LANs) over a public network • VPN uses existing Internet infrastructure and equipment to connect remote users and offices almost anywhere in the world. Application service providers (ASPs): a service company that buys and maintains software on its servers and distributes it through high-speed networks to subscribes for a set period and price • Companies subscribe to an ASP and use the applications (like phone voicemail - technology for which resides at the phone company) • IT can avoid purchasing, installing, supporting, and upgrading expensive software applications. ASPs buy and maintain the software on their servers and distribute it through high-speed networks. • Subscribers rent the applications they want for a set period and price. ASPs provide three major categories of applications to users: • • Enterprise applications, including customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning (ERP), e-commerce, and data warehousing; • Collaborative applications for internal communications, e-mail, groupware, document creation, and management messaging • Applications for personal use, such as games, entertainment software, and home-office applications. • Savings in infrastructure, time, and staff could be significant. Managed service providers (MSPs): the next generation of ASPs, offering customization and expanded capabilities such as business processes and complete management of the network servers Management information system (MIS): the methods and equipment that provide information about all aspects of a firmʼs operations [users hardware, and software that support decision making] [Database management system: tracks data and allows users to query the database] Transaction-processing system (TPS): an IS that handles the daily business operations of a firm. The system receives operations of a firm. The system receives and organizes raw data from internal and external sources for storage in a database using either batch or online processing > automate routine and tedious back-office processes such as accounting, order processing, and financial reporting. They reduce clerical expenses and provide basic operational information quickly. • Batch processing: method of updating a database in which data are collected over some time period, but processed together • Uses resources efficiently • Well suited to applications such as payroll processing that require periodic rather than continuous processing Online (real-time) processing: a method of updating a database in which data are processed as they become • available • Keeps company data current (eg. Airline reservations) • More expensiv
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