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Chapter 8

PSYC 351 Chapter 8.docx

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University of Calgary
PSYC 351

Chapter 8  Cognition- Higher-order mental processes, such as reasoning, thinking, learning and problem solving, through which humans attempt to understand the world.  There are three general approaches: cognitive-developmental approach, sociocultural approach, information-processing approach Piaget's Cognitive-- Approach - his training included both philosophy (the child's understanding of space, time, and causality; of number and quantity; of classes and relations; of invariance and change) and biology - he identifies basic forms of knowledge AND he claims that these basic forms of knowledge often take a long time to develop Mechanisms of Change -Adaptation refers to the process how organisms adapt to their environment by means of complex mechanisms. For example, human intelligence is an adaptive phenomenon. - Adaptation occurs through the complementary processes of assimilation and accomodation -Assimilation is when we distort reality to make it fit the understanding that we already process -Accommodation is when we change our understanding to take new things into account -development reflects one final influence fro biology: organisms are not static -For piaget, there is no single organization or set of cognitive structures that defines childhood intelligence. - it is not hte age that is more significant but the sequence, the order in which the stages come, which is assumed to be t
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