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Chapter 13

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PSYC 351
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1. Academic Self-Concept  the part of self-esteem that involves children's perceptions of their academic abilities a. Age and Gender Differences  infants have little understanding of success and failure so don't behave in ways that give any evidence of self-evaluation  before 2 years, children begin to show that they anticipate how adults will react to their achievements, such as when they look up for approval after making a stack of blocks  3 years- infants more wanting to participate in activities at which they win than lose  kindergarten: academic self concept is highest , then steadily declines through grade 4  trend noticed in children's spontaneous classroom comments to other students, during interview, to questionnaires  why: older children may realize that bragging is not socially appropriate, so they avoid giving glowing descriptions of their abilities b. Dweck's Motivational Model of Achievement  How a child performs at school depends partly on his or her academic abilities and partly on the amount of effort and motivation the child puts forth  a model was made to explain role of motivation in children's academic success. 2 patterns: i. Motivation Patterns  Children react to failures in 2 ways: o mastery-oriented - despite having failed, these children retain a positive mood and express high expectations for success on future attempts. So these children persist at the task and seek out similar challenging problems. ---> improved academic performance o helpless - affect conveys sadness and disappointment. They express doubt that they can ever succeed at the task. They show little persistence at the task and avoid similar challenges-->academic performance low  Why? children's feeling of self-worth. helpless children believe that their self-worth depends on the approval and positive judgement of others. master-oriented children do not believe that their self-worth depends on the opinions of others ii. The Development of Motivation: Work with preschool children  Even preschool children display patterns of persistence or helplessness  children given a puzzle that works and doens't work. Re-asked to chose which one they'd like to do again. More than 1/3 wanted to play with the one they solved  why do these non-persistent children want to repeat it? because its the easiest and because i already know how to do it  these children displayed negativeaffect toward the task and expressed lower expecations for success on another task  children who persisted in the unsolved puzzle-->positive pattern iii. Children's implicit theories of intelligence  Some children believe in an entity model in which the amount of a person's intelligence is fixed and unchangeable  incremental model- in which a person's intelligence can grow with experience and learning  another conception: some children believe that sucess or failure results from the amount of ability a person has; other chldren believe it depends on effort  helpless pattern children believe in the entity model--> gives child little reason for optimism  others: incremental model  girls more often follow entity model iv. The effects of praise and criticism  feedbacks that children get from adults is the source of patterns of motivation, having more impact than the child's temperament  after receiving criticism of a painting that had a child with no feet, 1/3 young children responded by lowering their own evaluation of the painting. These children were less willing to persist on the task. these children also expected bad comments from their parents. negativity extended to children's self evaluations: 2/3 of helpless children said their performance indicated they were not being goo
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