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ANTH 1150

Kottak Chapter 1 – What is Anthropology? Definitions: Anthropology: the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors holistic science Holistic: holism refers to the study of the whole human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture Society: organized life in groups; people share society with other animals Cultures: traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them Adaptation: refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by climate or landforms Form of Adaptation Type of Adaptation Example Technology Cultural Pressurized airplane cabins with oxygen masks Genetic Adaptation (occurs Biological Larger “barrel chests” of over generations) native highlanders Long-term physiological Biological More efficient respiratory adaptation (occurs during system, to extract oxygen growth and development of from “thin air” the individual organism) Short-term physiological Biological Increased heart rate, adaptation (occurs hyperventilation spontaneously when the individual organism enters a new environment) Food Production: the cultivation of plants and the domestication of animals General Anthropology: “four field anthropology”; included four main sub disciplines or subfields – sociocultural, archaeological, biological, linguistic anthropology Biocultural: refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem Cultural Anthropology: the study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences Ethnography: provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture; ethnographer gathers data that they organize, describe, analyze, and interpret to build and present that account, which may be in the form of a book, article, or film; traditionally live in small communities and study local behavior, beliefs, customs, social life, economic activities, politics, and religion Ethnology: examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography; uses such data to compare and contrast and to make generalizations about society and culture; attempt to identify and explain cultural differences and similarities, to test hypotheses, and to build theory to enhance our understanding of how social and cultural systems work Archaeological Anthropology: reconstructs, describes, and interprets huma
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