ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 3: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
• Mode of livelihood: the dominate way of making a living in a culture
• Mode of consumption: the dominate pattern
• Mode of exchange: the dominate pattern, in a culture, of transferring goods, service and other items between and among people
• Modes of livelihood
Foraging: based of resources that are available in nature through gathering, fishing, or hunting.
Horticulture: Based on cultivating domesticated plants in gardens using hand tools.
Agriculture: involves growing crops on a permanent plots with the use of plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer.
Industrialism/informatics is which goods and services are produced through mass employment in business and
• Modes of consumption
Characterized by few and finite consumer demands and an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them.
Consumerism which people’s demands are many and infinite, and the means o satisfying them are never sufficient, thus
driving colonialism, globalization, and other forms of expansionism.
• Modes of Exchange
• Balanced exchange a system of transfers in which the goal is either immediate or eventual balance in value
Expected reciprocity is the exchange of approximately equally valued goods or services, usually between people of
roughly equal social status.
Generalized reciprocity is a transaction that involves the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of
what might be received in return and when.
Pure gift is something given with no expectation or thought of a return.
• Unbalanced exchange a system of transfers in which one party attempts to make a profit
Market exchange is a prominent form of unbalanced exchange – buying/selling in competitive conditions
ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 5: DISEASE, ILLNESS AND HEALING
• Ethnomedicine is the study of crosscultural health systems
• Culture – specific syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms that is restricted to a particular culture or a limited number of
• Susto is fright/shock disease
• Ethnoetiology refers to a cross culturally specific casual explanation for health problems and suffering
• Structural suffering refer to health problems caused by forces such as poverty, war, famine and forced migration.
• Healing ways
Community healing embraces the social context as a key component and that is carried out within the public domain
• Ecological/Epidemiological approach examines how aspects of the natural environment interact with culture to cause health
problems and influence their spread throughout the population.
Research should focus on gathering information about the environmental context
Can provide information about groups that are at risk of specific problems
• Interpretivist approach
Examine aspects of healing
ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 8: POLITICAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS
• Band is the form of political organization associated with foraging groups, involves flexible mem