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Chapter 19

Week 2 - Harris Chapter 19, Kane Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, Course Reader Lee.doc

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ANTH 1150
Satsuki Kawano

Kane Chapter 2 04­02­2013 02:32:00 Harris – Chapter 19 (p 332 – 346): Globalization • Definition: changes in the world economic system: the fusing of national markets through the removal of protectionist barriers that stimulated free movement of capital and paved the way for the emergence of multinational corporations. • Concept dates back to early colonialism, when European trading empires increased their power and wealth by using the labour and resources of less powerful regions • Colonizers wanted to acquire land with good resources to gain strategic positions against rival nations in political and military confrontations • Industrial revolution brought mechanized production to many nations and ushered in a second period of colonialism • Industrialized countries could produce more quantities of goods • Relied on colonies to provide raw materials Multinational Corporations • Definition: Are not economically tied to or dependent on any single country. They have manufacturing plants in several countries and move their facilities in search of cheaper labour, lower taxes, and favourable government regulation Colonialism • Definition: the political and economic domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power through conquest, settlement, and exploitation Post-Colonial • Refers to study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized, both during colonialism and after. In a broader sense, postcolonial is used to signify a position against imperialism and Euro centrism Colonialism and Underdevelopment • Colonial dependants (although they furthered development), are the poorer countries today because they helped the development of Europe as opposed to themselves • This occurred through taxation, interest on bank loans to buy slaves and milling machinery, and one sided trade relations • The more tropical a land was the more desirable it was as a colony • However as new tropical colonial regions were brought into production, prices declined • One way to compensate for declining prices was increasing labour productivity through technological improvements • Why are underdeveloped countries persisted and even gotten worse? o 1.endowments of natural resources o 2. Population size and population density o 3. The degree of exploitation under colonialism o 4. The conditions under which freedom was obtained o 5. The degree of cultural, linguistic, and ethnic unity Sociocultural Evolution and Development • Sociocultural evolution is the result of population growth, which depends on intensification of the food supply through technology and the organization of production • This process involves three correlates to population growth: subsistence intensification, political integration, and social stratification • Subsistence economy- geared toward meeting basic human needs and is managed at the household level • Political economy- geared to maximizing production for use by social, political, and religious institutions, which over time evolve into a ruling elite The Industrial Revolution • Known as the fourth great technological leap of humankind • Wasn’t just known for the invention of industrialization, but also the rise of commercialization • Commercialization- a process that makes capital accumulation the primary objective and leads to the production of great inequalities of wealth and power The Green Revolution • Definition: designed to increase grain yields through the use of miracle seeds as a key to ending world hunger. • Development is a problem that requires an understanding of political, economic, and ecological processes on an anthropological scale • Green revolution illustrates the possibilities inherent between technology and environment; but also between politics and economy • ‘Wonder seeds’ were hailed as the solution to the problem of feeding the expanding population of the underdeveloped world • However these seeds needed lots of water and chemical fertilizers, so generally only richer farmers and merchants had them Free Market versus Antimarket Forces • The real social transformation brought by industrialism is through the self-regulating free market and neoliberalism • Self regulating market was credited for transforming the world into one global economic system • Neoliberalism- refers to free enterprise, or ‘the rule of the market.’ It suggests that an unregulated market is the best way to increase economic growth, which will ultimately benefit everyone. • During the past 30 years, liberal economics has re-emerged with neoliberalism • Neoliberalism suggests o Cutting public expenditure for social services and instituting a individual responsibility on the free market o Deregulation and the reduction of government regulation that would limit profits o Privatization of state owned enterprises to private investors, which would be run with greater efficiency and less waste • Anti market Critique- the free market promotes an egocentric individualism that dissolves the integrity of society. The market creates and sustains class inequalities, which increases suffering for the great majority of workers while opening the door to consumption excesses for an exclusive few • Antimarket critique consists of two forms: o One recognizes that the free market dissolves social bonds, leaving individuals to stand alone against an overwhelming array of power centers that seek to exploit market opportunities to their own benefit o The other is based on the potential damage market behaviour does to ecology and the environment. It points to the role of markets in environmentally destructive activates like deforestation Assimilation • The most successful way to incorporating indigenous cultur
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