ANTH 1150 Chapter Notes -Acculturation, Enculturation, Intellectual Property

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Anthropology Key Terms
Chapter 1
Adaptation is the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and
stresses, such as those posed by climates and landscapes.
Anthropology is the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
Holism (holistic) refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past,
present, and future, biology, society language and culture.
Culture is traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and
guide the beliefs and behaviour of the people exposed to them.
Food Production is the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals.
General Anthropology (four-field anthropology) includes biological, linguistic,
archeological and sociocultural anthropology.
Biocultural refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural
perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem.
Natural Selection is the process by which the forms most fit to survive and
reproduce in a given environment do so in greater umbers than others in the same
population do.
Tropics is a belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator
between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
Cultural Anthropology is the study of human society and culture. It is a subfield
that describes, analyzes, interprets and explains socio and cultural similarities and
Ethnography provides and account of a particular community, society or culture.
Ethnology examines, interprets, analyzes and compares the results of ethnography.
Archeological Anthropology reconstructs, describes and interprets human
behaviour and cultural patterns though material remains.
Biological (physical) Anthropology is human biological diversity in time and
Primates include our closest relatives monkey and apes.
Linguistic Anthropology studies the language in its social and cultural context,
across space and over time.
Sociolinguistics investigates relationships between social and linguistic variations.
Science is a systematic field of study of body of knowledge that aims through
experiment, observation and deduction to produce reliable explanations of
Cultural Resource Management (CRM) preserves sites that are important and
allows destruction of sites that are unimportant.
Chapter 2
Enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture.
Symbols are signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they
stand for or signify.
Core Values integrates each culture and helps distinguish it from others.
Homodins is the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans, as well as
chimps and gorillas.
Hominins is used for the group that leads to humans but not to chimps and gorillas
and that encompasses all the human species that ever have existed.
Universal is something that is found in every culture.
Generalities are common to several but not to all human groups.
Particularities are unique to certain cultural traditions.
International Culture extends beyond and across national boundaries.
Subcultures are different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with
particular groups n the same complex society.
Cultural Relativism is the viewpoint that behaviour in one culture should not be
judged by the standards of another culture.
Human Rights invoke a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to the
laws and customs of particular countries, cultures and religions.
Cultural Rights are vested not in individuals but in groups such as religious and
ethnic minorities and indigenous societies.
Acculturation is a second mechanism of cultural change. It is the exchange of
cultural features that results when the groups have continuous firsthand contact.
Diffusion is borrowing traits between cultures.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is an attempt to conserve each society’s cultural
base its core beliefs, knowledge and practices.
Independent Invention is the process by which humans innovate, creatively
finding solutions to problems. This is a third mechanism of cultural change.
Globalization encompasses a serious of processes including diffusion, migration
and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and
people and increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent.