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Anthropology Some Key Terms.docx

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University of Guelph
ANTH 1150

Anthropology Key Terms Chapter 1 Adaptation is the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by climates and landscapes. Anthropology is the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors. Holism (holistic) refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future, biology, society language and culture. Culture is traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behaviour of the people exposed to them. Food Production is the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals. General Anthropology (four-field anthropology) includes biological, linguistic, archeological and sociocultural anthropology. Biocultural refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem. Natural Selection is the process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater umbers than others in the same population do. Tropics is a belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Cultural Anthropology is the study of human society and culture. It is a subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets and explains socio and cultural similarities and differences. Ethnography provides and account of a particular community, society or culture. Ethnology examines, interprets, analyzes and compares the results of ethnography. Archeological Anthropology reconstructs, describes and interprets human behaviour and cultural patterns though material remains. Biological (physical) Anthropology is human biological diversity in time and space. Primates include our closest relatives –monkey and apes. Linguistic Anthropology studies the language in its social and cultural context, across space and over time. Sociolinguistics investigates relationships between social and linguistic variations. Science is a systematic field of study of body of knowledge that aims through experiment, observation and deduction to produce reliable
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