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Chapter 5

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University of Guelph
ANTH 1150
Hank Davis

Stephanie Oliveira 1 Chapter 5: Making a living Adaptive Strategies  Yehudi Cohen coined the term, adaptive strategy to describe a society’s system of economic production.  He developed a typology of societies based on correlations between their economies and their social features.  5 adaptive strategies: 1. Foraging  The foraging way of life survived into modern times in certain forests, deserts, islands, and cold areas.  All modern foragers live in nation-states and depend to some extent on government assistance.  They are in contact with food producing neighbours as well as with missionaries and other outsiders.  Some of the best-known foragers are the aborigines of Australia. They lived on their island continent for more than 60,000 years without developing food production.  Costal foragers lived near the southern tip of South America, in Patagonia.  The band- small group of fewer than a hundred people, all related by kinship and marriage.  People could join a band to which they had kin or marital status links.  Men typically hunt and fish while women gather and collect. 2. Horitculture  Horticulture- cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production. They use simple tools to grow their crops.  Slash and burn techniques- clear land by cutting down (slashing) and burning forest or bush.  Because the relationship between people and land is not permanent, horticulture is also called shifting cultivation. 3. Agriculture  Agriculture uses land and intensively and continuously.  Many agriculturists use animals as means of production.  They attach animals to plow’s and harrows for field preparation before planting or transplanting.  Also manure from their animals.  Agriculturists can schedule their planting in advance because they control water  The Ifugao mastered terracing. Their homeland has small valleys separated by steep hillsides. The Ifugao’s cut into the hillside and build stage after stage of terraced fields rising about the valley floor to prevent water to wash everything away during the rainy seasons.  Agriculture requires human labour to build and maintain irrigation systems, terraces and other workers.  An agricultural field does not necessarily produce a higher single year yield than a horticultural plot.  The range of environments available for food production has widened as people have increased their control over nature.  Because of their permanent fields, agriculturalists are sedentary.  Agriculturists attempt to reduce risk in production by favouring stability in the form of a reliable annual harvest and long term production. 4. Pastoralism  Pastoralism- people whose activities focus on domestication of animals.  They consume their meat, blood and milk, from which they make yogurt, butter and cheese. They rely on their herds.  Pastoralism was confined almost totally to the Old World. Two patterns of movement occur with pastorialism: o Pastoral nomadism- the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year. o Pastoral transhumance- part of the group moves with the herds, but most people stay in the home village. 5. Industrial societies.  In nonindustrial societies, the relationship between the worker and the means of production is more intimate than it is in industrial nations.  Means, or factors of production include land, labour and technology.  Right to the means of production come through kinship and marriage. Descent groups (groups whose members claim common ancestry) are common among nonindustrial food producers.  In nonindustrial societies, access to both land and labor comes through social links such as kinship, marriange and descent.  Nonindustrial societies contrast with industrial societies regarding another means of production—technology.  In nonindustrial societies, peoplelive with the same people they work for. In industrial societies, workers sell their labours to bosses.  Industrial societies usuall don’t work with family and friends.  They have impersonal relations with their employees coworkers, and products.  Aihwa Ong- studied electronics assembly workers in an area where 85% of the workers were young unmarried femailes from nearby villages. Ong found that female factory workers had to
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