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Chapter 5

ANTH 1150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Thorstein Veblen, Pastoralism, Social Fund

Course Code
ANTH 1150
Hank Davis

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Stephanie Oliveira
Chapter 5: Making a living
Adaptive Strategies
Yehudi Cohen coined the term, adaptive strategy to describe a society’s
system of economic production.
He developed a typology of societies based on correlations between their
economies and their social features.
5 adaptive strategies:
1. Foraging
The foraging way of life survived into modern times in certain forests,
deserts, islands, and cold areas.
All modern foragers live in nation-states and depend to some extent
on government assistance.
They are in contact with food producing neighbours as well as with
missionaries and other outsiders.
Some of the best-known foragers are the aborigines of Australia. They
lived on their island continent for more than 60,000 years without
developing food production.
Costal foragers lived near the southern tip of South America, in
The band- small group of fewer than a hundred people, all related by
kinship and marriage.
People could join a band to which they had kin or marital status links.
Men typically hunt and fish while women gather and collect.
2. Horitculture
Horticulture- cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the
factors of production. They use simple tools to grow their crops.
Slash and burn techniques- clear land by cutting down (slashing)
and burning forest or bush.
Because the relationship between people and land is not permanent,
horticulture is also called shifting cultivation.
3. Agriculture
Agriculture uses land and intensively and continuously.
Many agriculturists use animals as means of production.
They attach animals to plow’s and harrows for field preparation
before planting or transplanting.
Also manure from their animals.
Agriculturists can schedule their planting in advance because they
control water
The Ifugao mastered terracing. Their homeland has small valleys
separated by steep hillsides. The Ifugao’s cut into the hillside and
build stage after stage of terraced fields rising about the valley floor to
prevent water to wash everything away during the rainy seasons.
Agriculture requires human labour to build and maintain irrigation
systems, terraces and other workers.
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