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ANTH 1150 (169)
Chapter 6

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ANTH 1150
Hank Davis

 Many Anthropologists use a socio-political typology that classifies societies as bands, tribes, chiefdoms, or states.  Foragers tended to live in egalitarian, band-organized societies  Personal networks linked individuals, families, and bands.  Band leaders were first amoung equals, with no sure way to enforce decisions. Disputes rarely arose over strategic resources, which were open to all.  Tribes- have economies based on non intensive food production  Tribes have no formal government and no reliable means of enforcing political decisions.  Chiefdom- a form of socio-political organization intermediate between the tribe and the state.  The state- a form of socio-political organization based on a formal government structure and socio-economic stratification.  Services labels “band,” “tribe,” “chiefman,” and “state” are categories or types within a socio-political typology. Foraging Bands The san:  San speakers have been influenced by Bantu speakers for 2,000 years.  Many san now tend to cattle for wealthier Bantu rather than foraging independently. San also have their own domesticated animals, further illustrating their movement away from a foraging lifestyle. The Inuit  The aboriginal Inuit, another group of foragers, provide good example of methods of settling disputes—conflict resolution—in stateless societies.  Hunting and fishing by men were the primary Inuit subsistence activities. The diverse and abundant plant foods available in warmer areas, where female labour in gathering is important, were absent in the Arctic.  A jilted husband had several options. He could try to kill the wife stealer. However, if he succeeded, one of his rival’s kinsmen surely would try to kill him in retaliation.  Each Inuit had access to the resources he or she needed to sustain life. Age and Gender  Age and gender also can be used for regional political integration.  Among North America’s Plains Indians, men’s associations (pantribal sodalities) organized raiding and buffalo hunting.  Such sodalities provide offense and defence when there is intertribal raiding for animals.  Among pastoralists, the degree of authority and political organization reflects population size and density, interethnic relations, and pressure on resources. State  The state is an autonomous political unit that encompasses many communities.  Its government collects taxes, drafts people for work and war, and decrees and enforces laws. The state is a form of
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