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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

14 pages58 viewsWinter 2014

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2160
Professor
Dan Yarmey
Chapter
11

Page:
of 14
Chapter 11 11/30/2013
Stereotype- a belief that associates a whole group of people with a certain trait
Prejudice- hostile or negative feelings about people based on their membership in
a certain group
Discrimination- behaviour directed against people solely because of their
membership in a particular group
Steve Fein & Steven Spencer: conducted a study at a school where there was a
strong negative stereotype against Jewish American women, but not about Italian
American women. Participants where given either positive or negative feedback
about their intelligence. They were then asked to evaluate a job candidate, one was
portrayed as a Jewish candidate, and the other an Italian one. Those who received
the negative feedback about their intelligence rated Jewish candidates more
negatively. There was no difference in ratings for the candidates for those who
received positive feedback.
Studies established that individuals who consciously feel good about themselves
but who harbor self-doubts and insecurities at less conscious levels behave more
defensively by, for example, rationalizing their decisions more.
Social Learning
If a child hears a parent express negative attitudes about people who hold
different religious beliefs from their own, or sees a parent avoid interactions
with people with such beliefs, the child is likely to form negative beliefs about
those people.
Whites who hear someone express racial views express weaker antiracist
positions than those without such exposure.
Social learning is one explanation for why people are often willing to express
certain types of prejudice, but not others. People learn to avoid discriminating
against those in the “not acceptable” category such as the blind or mentally
disabled.
In one study, it was found that students who were high in prejudice and who
received the information that their views were held by others believed that a
greater percentage of Blacks possessed more negative traits and fewer positive
traits than those who learned their views were not shared by others.
In one study, it was revealed that those with low prejudice express more warmth
toward the Aboriginal partner after reading multicultural message. On the other
hand, those who have a negative tendency toward the out group, are more likely
to feel threatened after reading a multicultural message and express less warmth
toward their Aboriginal partner
Social Categorization: the practice of classifying people into in-groups or out-
groups based on attributes that the person has in common with the in-group or out-
group.
Social categorization can be done on meaningless grounds, such as eye colour,
shoe size or province you live.
The classification of people into 2 groups has two consequences that contributes
to stereotyping: the outgroup homogeneity and in-group favourtism.
The out-group homogeneity effect- people’s tendency to underestimate the
variability of outgroup members compared to the variability of in-group members
jurors give shorter sentences to those accused of crimes in same ethnic group
people are motivated to favour those in the in-group because those people are
more likely to favour us in return
acquired early in life and remains stable throughout
people rate words associated with in-group (ie. us, we) more positively than
those referring to out-group (ie. they, them)
this suggests in-group preference works at an automatic level
increases when people heavily identify with the in-group and when group
norms are more salient
social dominance orientation: personality variable describing the extent to
which one wants his/her in-group to dominate and be superior to out-groups
people who are high in this show higher levels of in-group favouritism
people who believe their own group should dominate over others are more
prejudiced against people in lower status group
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
theory that competition between groups for resources leads to conflict
animosity between groups motivated by peoples self-interest in terms of
competition for jobs, land and power
modern racism: underlying prejudice where peoples negative feelings about
out-group members are not rooted specifically in their group membership (ie.
race/gender) but in more general beliefs about peoples moral values
ie. discrimination against Mexican people not caused by racism per se, but by
the belief that Mexicans do not work hard enough, etc
relative deprivation: feeling of discontent caused by belief that one fares poorly
compared to people in other groups
occurs even in absence of absolute deprivation (when ones access to resources
if directly threatened by another group)
causes strong negative attitudes toward out-group members, as do people who
believe they’re more advantaged than others
prejudice can be caused by intergroup competition for resources and can also be
used to justify preferential treatment of your own group
Social Identity Theory: The Role of Self-Esteem
each person strives to enhance his/her self-esteem, which is made up of 2
parts: personal identity and social identity
people favour in-groups vs. out-groups in order to enhance their self-esteem
affiliating with successful groups increases own feelings of self-worth
threats to self-esteem can increase need for in-group favouritism
expressing prejudice/discrimination towards out-group members also
enhances ones self-esteem – especially for those who strongly identify with in-
group
people with high self-esteem more likely to respond to threats by
discriminating against out-group than those with low self-esteem
size of in-group needs to be small enough for people to feel unique
minority groups tend to have greater group loyalty
people who have marginal status in the in-group are more likely to
discriminate against out-group members, particularly in presence of in-group
members

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