Chapter 2 – The War Refugees
- Manno was the first person on Do Kay to die of aids
- 4 decades ago Do Kay (a small settlement in the hills of Haiti) had not a house in sight
- Most of its older inhabitants did not attend school – do not read or write
o Most live in 2 room houses, dirt floors and plots of land that yield slowly diminishing returns no
tractors, electricity or cars
o If you had no education you got nothing, those who were literate were the ones who got paid
o Corruption and graft also played a huge role in who received reimbursements
- Before 1956 there was no Do Kay, the area was a desert
- For years life was bitter for refugees – floods occurred and roads were put in that created explosives “we were
afraid we’d be crushed by crashing rocks that came down with no warning.”
- 1956 was a time of hell for the refugees
Ch. 3: The Remembered Valley
1. What does Farmer mean by the phrase “crisis in meaning”?
• He is referring to their spirituality; some lost their faith all together, while others believed that the Iwa (spirits)
weren’t as responsive because the they weren’t able to supply them with “food”
• Not only does dispersion and its effects on spirituality affect the Kay area, but also everywhere in Haiti
• When scattered peasants find themselves unable to counter the machinations of faroff or unknown oppressors,
the resulting inequity is likely to give rise to accusations of sorcery
2. What is the relevance of this chapter?
• There is a dehumanizing effect of rootlessness and of poverty; the dam’s dehumanizing effects were felt among
• Bitterness was born of the dislocation leading to feuds and sorcery accusations
• An understanding of sorcery is of great significance to understandings of illness causation in the Kay area today
1. TheArawakan-speaking Taino people inhabitedAyiti when Columbus arrived in 1492.
2. The original inhabitants were cut down by disease and the rest through peonage (tribute of gold per adult,
which was impossible to fulfill). Slavery killed the rest at a very fast rate. They went from 8 million at close of
15 century to 5000 in 1530 and none when the French arrived 50 years later.
3. By 1540, 30000 Africans imported to Hispaniola by the Spanish. The Western 1/3 of island ceded to France,
who called it Saint-Domingue and the rest was inhabited by Spanish and their slaves. There were no more
natives at this time.
4. Francois Macandal was a maroon who ran away from his plantation after his hand was severed in the sugar
mill. He was held responsible for deaths of several whites by poison. He was also accused of teaching the art of
poison and having agents throughout the colony. He was burned at the stake with his ‘accomplices’. 5. Macandal or ouanga are charms that were strapped to the thigh for protection.Also called sorcery bundles
were a capital crime to possess. Macandal also became a word for poison and poisoner.
6.Five classes of people who inhabited the island at time of French revolution were: (first three classes consisted
of 40000 people)
1. White planters
2. Royal officials
3. Poor whites: overseers, artisans etc.
4. Mulattoes and free negroes: 28000, 1/3 of real estate, ¼ of all personal property on island, denied social
and political equality with whites.
5. Slaves: 452000
7. Toussaint Louverture was legally a slave until age 45 and is credited with introducing guerilla warfare to the
slave army. Organizational and military skills held sway over majority of islands inhabitants. 1796, he named
himself lieutenant governor of a colonial s