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ANTH 2660
Edward Hedican

Applied Anthropology in Canada Understanding Aboriginal IssuesChapter 1 SummaryIntroductionPage 113 Introduction The birth of anthropology took place in the age of colonialism the age of civilization exploration pax Brittainica and encounters with primitive nd barbarian culturesFrom early beginnings the history of anthropology has been characterized by what is called the struggle for relevance which involves an interplay between a concern for a largely theoretical apporach to human social organization among some and a desire to provide practical understanding of social issues among othersThere is always a need for anthropologistsand social scientitsts in generalto spend time in studying their roles as researchers theoreticians and culture brokers instead of working in relative isolation from others It is anthropologys eclectic nature that could well provide its most distinctive advantageAnthropologists long held that it is fieldwork participant observation that provides the basis for anthropologys claim to be a separate area of scholastic endeavorA useful approach would be one that draws upon the commonalities of the anthropological experience making a start towards clarifying some of the common goals and achievements and areas where new knowledge is needed Whats in a Name Defintitions and TerminologyThe term Aboriginal in this book refers to Native people in the widest sense Term Indian more widely used in the past than it is today Indian means a perosn who pursuant to the Indian Act 2 1 is registered as an Indian or is entitled to be registered as an IndianThis has a legal connotation as it specifies types of Aboriginal people with special legal rights as opposed to nonstatus Indians those who lack the sepical rights conferred under the Indian ActRegistered Legal and status used interchangeably to indicate people who are a federal government responsibilityStatus Indians are people who are entitled to have their names included on the Indian RegisterOnly status Indians are therefore recognized as Indians under the Indian Act and are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the lawNon status Indians are not recognized as Indians under the Indian Act because they have either lost their status or have been unable to prove that they are entitled to Indian statusNative is also widely used though it has been largely superseded by Aboriginal as a general cover term the term was used by the Native Council of Canada until the organization changed its name to the Aboriginal Congress of Canada Native American is a commonly used term in the US and describes the descendants of the original peoples of North AmericaDifferent areas of govt activity at both federal and provincial levels have policy implications since they are indicative of the diversified and fragmented jurisdictional problem of Aboriginal politics and administration in CanadaAt one level the British North America Act seems to indicate that the federal government has jurisdiciton over therefore obligations to all Aboriginal people on Canadian soil Should Pariliament legislate for all Natives or just for some Reserve is another problematic term meaning the land set aside by the crown for the benefit and use of a bandMany Aboriginal people prefer the term First Nations communityFirst Nations however do not include Metis or InuitTreaty Indians descendants of Indians who signed treaties with the Canadian government or earlier with the British crown and who have a contemporary connection with a treaty band
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