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Chapter 7

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ANTH 3650
Edward Hedican

Pre-History of North America. J. Jennings Chapter 7: Cultural Resource Management and Historical Archaeology. Lela Hicks [email protected] Two Dominant forces in archaeology today Cultural Resource Management (CRM) concerned with cultural and social values not merely with prehistoric archaeological ma- terials. Often deal directly with places and events linked to nations history. Cultural Resource Management appeared in 1970s Cultural resources to be managed defined by Fowler (1982) Physical features, both natural and manmade associated with human activity. Includes sites, structure, objects cultural properties are unique and nonrenewable resources Resource management: is the attempt to plan, organize, direct, control, and evaluate the preservation of important aspects of cultural heritage for public good. not always archaeological History of CRM culmination of many forces inc. govnt action back to 19th C legislation covering conservation preservation always included either (and still does) ‘human knowledge’ or ‘the public good’ early example 1906 Congress passed Antiquities Act then in 1916 established National Park Service. NPS - concerned with preservation concern with arch locations increased in 1930s onward (led by american govnt desire to recover data in Tennessee and Missouri where damns flooded thousands of acres of floodplain with 10,000 years of prehistory) Note: salvage archaeology/anthro other forces of driving popularity CRM nationalistic pride of americas past Historic American Building Survey Act 1935 & NPS designated to ‘evaluate and estab- lish national historic sites’ National Trust for Historic Preservation - 1949 National Register of Historic Places - 1966 - required identification and listing of arch and historical locations inc. buildings. Third force: 1969 National Environmental Policy Act all joined agreeance of CRM concept and activity 1971 Executive Order this order mandates federal agencies must “... maintain and preserve cultural resources in a spirit of trusteeship for the future” problem: making government in charge of archaeological sites sites are fragile, finite, and disappearing b/c of our construction (dams, roads, airports, housing subdivisions etc) as well as vandalism and natural forces. federal interest in sites still today - must have permission to build. Environmental Impact Study (EIS) done before building, including an archaeological resource survey if find that building ex Pipeline will go through a site, then the CRM job to convince builders to relocate if relocation costs exceed the cost of excavation then last resort is to salvage the endan- gered data ethic is to avoid destroying the site preferred, A chaotic situation.... between research and management he difference b/t government wishes and archaeologist desire to preserve history ex agencies for whom arch works for may not even care in science or research, just wants clearance to build site, = problems arise. Pressure ... not enough university connected archaeologists to cope with flood of immediate - usual- ly emergency demands for surveys of areas. many researches saying not their responsibility to do this ‘applied’ ‘service’ work also saying that merely searching for sites was not the path to knowledge. What next ... predictable companies begin asking for bids when uni’s could not accommodate requests private companies claiming archaeological skills begin to appear lowest bidd
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