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BIOL 1020 Chapter Notes -Gene Expression, Deoxyribose, Glycosylation

Course Code
BIOL 1020

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Study Question
1) What are the major factors that influence the development of
biotechnology? For each of these factors provide an example of its
effect on the field
2) What is synthetic biology
Biotech is about the understanding of how genes work
DNA + Protein = chromosome (histone proteins) that aggregate together
because it is required for the complex to store our genetic material to use it
whenever we need to
Genome- complete set of DNA of an organism
RBC don’t have DNA
WHAT IF you want to check a dogs liver for a mutation, should you take a
biopsy or can you take a blood sample? – Blood sample. Although red
blood cells do not contain DNA, the other components of the blood would
have a complete set of DNA that could be tested
The smallest genome is the viral genome with about 5000 base pairs, most
of them can’t survive on their own and must depend on the host to survive
(simple) human dogs and pigs are very similar in the amount of base pairs.
Rice have more genes than that of the human genes (cool fact)
Why is there a discrepancy between amount of genes and the base pairs?
In the human genome only 2 percent is useful for us the rest of it is
“garbage sequence” that doesn’t code for anything important.
Nucleosomes is the basic unit of DNA packaging that is made of 4 histone
proteins wrapped by DNA. They wrap for a purpose NOT randomly. The
interaction between the histones affect the expression of genes. DNA
nucleotides (AGTC) determine structure.
Review: DNA are always double stranded, running anti-parallel, DNA
consists of an organic base with a phosphate group and a Deoxyribose
sugar and the 5 group links to the phosphate group and the 3 links to a OH
group. The two strands are linked together by Hydrogen bonds occurring
between the organic bases in each nucleotide. The rule of pairing AT, CG.
Two bonds between AT and 3 bonds between CG (Hydrogen bonds).

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If you have 2 DNA templates and one has lots of GC and the other is low in
GC the strand that would require more energy to separate would be the
template with the HIGH content of CG because it has 3 Hydrogen bonds for
each pair that need to be broken.
RNA- is single stranded and contain the base Uracil instead of Thymine
which makes the nucleotide component of RNA AUCG.
IN DNA the 2 position has an H, however in Ribose sugar the 2 positon has
an OH
DNA if you want to get a bio organism to produce what we want we need to
first duplicate the DNA so each daughter cell so they have a template. This
process is called DNA replication which is mediated by DNA Polymerase.
Transcription occurs to make mRNA template. The template is used
through the process of translation to make the proteins desired
Transcription Review
1) Uses DNA as template, (double stranded) the top strand will be the
coding strand meaning after transcription you mRNA produced will be
the same as this top strand.
2) Be clear on the direction and remember that the strands are opposite.
Synthesis occurs in 5’ to 3’ direction
3) The bottom strand (template) strand will generate mRNA which is the
same as the top (coding strand) except the T will be replaced with
Uracil. RNA polymerase mediates this.
4) There are 3 kinds of RNA polymerase ( I- rRNA production II- mRNA
and microRNA, III is responsible for something she said that sounded
really Chinese)
Posttranslational modifications
1. Cleavage, Phosphorylation, Glycosylation
Major components of a gene: promoter- drives the starting signal of
transcription, exons are the coding sequences that we keep, not the
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