BIOL 1080 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Skeletal Muscle, Hyperthermia, Ground Substance
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Basic Characteristics of all Living Things
1. Living things contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
2. Living things are composed of cells.
3. Living things grow and reproduce.
4. Living things use energy and raw materials.
a. Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things.
5. Living things respond to their environment.
6. Living things maintain homeostasis.
7. Populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits.
a. Adaptive traits help reproduce and survive in a natural environment.
1. Make careful observations and ask a question about the observations.
2. Develop a testable hypothesis (possible explanation) as a possible answer to your
3. Make a prediction based on your hypothesis and test it with a controlled
a. Controlled experiment: Involves a control group and an experimental group.
4. Draw a conclusion based on the results of the experiment.
Inductive Reasoning: Facts are accumulated through observation until the sheer weight of
the evidence allows some logical general statement to be made.
(From Psyc: Reasoning from the bottom up
starting with specific facts and trying to
develop a general principle)
Deductive Reasoning: Begins with a general statement that leads logically to one or more
deductions, or conclusions.
(From Psyc: Reasoning from the top down
from general principles to a conclusion
about a specific case.)
Epidemiological Studies: Researchers look at patterns that occur within large
1. Is the information consistent with information from other sources?
2. How reliable is the source of the information?
3. Was the information obtained through proper scientific procedures?
4. Were experimental results interpreted correctly?
5. Are there other possible explanations for the results?
A group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function.
- Epithelial tissue
o Covers body surfaces, lines body cavities and organs, and forms glands.
- Connective tissue
o Serves as storage site for fat, plays an important in immunity, and provides the
body and its organs with protection and support.
- Muscle tissue
o Responsible for the body movement and for movement of substances through the
- Nervous tissue
o Conducts nerve impulses from one of the body to another.
- Free surface
o Specialized in protection, secretion or absorption
- Basement membrane
o Noncellular layer that binds the epithelial cells to underlying connective tissue
and helps the epithelial tissue resist stretching.
3 basic shapes
- Squamous epithelium
o Made up of flattened, or scale-like, cells.
Form lining in the blood vessels or lungs, where O2 or CO2 diffuse easily.
Reduces friction also.
- Cuboidal epithelium
o Made up of cube-shaped cells
Found in many glands and in the lining of kidneys Provide protection and
are specialized in secretion and absorption.
- Columnar epithelium
o Consists of elongated, column-shaped cells Specialized for absorption and
o Have numerous small, fingerlike folds Increasing the surface area for
absorption & eases the passage of food
Found in the small intestine
Simple epithelium (Squamous, Cuboidal or Columnar) (Single layer of cells)
Stratified epithelium (Squamous, Cuboidal or Columnar) (Multiple layers of cells)
o Protective role many layers provide additional thickness making it more
difficult for molecules to pass through.
Gland: Epithelial tissue that secretes a product.