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Chapter

3B(i).docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1080
Professor
Jim Kirkland

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3B(i) - Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems Functions of blood - Transportation - Protection (white blood cells) - Regulation (body temperature) Composition of blood Plasma  Straw colored liquid that makes up about 55% of blood. - Transports substances to the cells, and carries away cellular wastes - Most of the dissolved substances in the blood are plasma proteins (7% - 8%) o Help balance water flow Platelets  Essential to blood clotting - Formed in red bone marrow White Blood Cells  Or Leukocytes  Remove wastes, toxins, and damaged or abnormal cells  Warriors in the body’s fight against disease (Phagocytosis  engulfing of the offender) - 2 groups o Granulocytes  have granules in the cytoplasm containing chemicals that are used as weapons to destroy invading pathogens, like bacteria.  3 types  Neutrophils  soldiers of the front line  Eosinophils  Defense against parasitic worms & lessen the severity of allergies  Basophils  Release histamine which attracts more white blood cells to the site of infection. o Agranulocytes  lack granules  2 types  Monocytes  develop into macrophages  Lymphocytes  B lymphocytes & T lymphocytes o B Lymphocytes give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies. o T Lymphocytes  body’s defense mechanisms. Red Blood Cells  Also called erythrocytes  Pick up oxygen in the lungs and transports it to all the cells of the body. - Packed with hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding pigment. Red Blood Cells Disorders - Anemia  Blood’s ability to carry oxygen is reduced. o Fatigue, headaches, dizziness, paleness, breathlessness o Caused by iron-deficiency which leads to inadequate hemoglobin production White Blood Cells Disorders - Mono  viral disease of the lymphocytes o Headaches, fever, chills, sore throat - Leukemia  cancer of the white blood cells ABO blood types - A, B, AB, or O Blood Clotting - Step 1  Injured cells in the walls of the vessels and platelets release clotting factors. - Step 2  Clotting factors convert an inactive blood protein to prothrombin activator. - Step 3  Prothrombin activator convert prothrombin to thrombin. - Step 4  Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin. - Step 5  The fibrin network traps red blood cells and platelets, forming a blood clot. Cardiovascular System  Consists of the heart, and blood vessels Blood Vessels - Heart  Artery  Arteriole  Capillary  Venule  Vein  (Back to heart) Inner of a blood vessel is called lumen. Arteries  Transport blood away from the heart  Body’s main artery is the aorta - Vasoconstriction  blood flow is reduced - Vasodilation  blood flow is increased - Aneurysm  Defect  when the artery swells and may burst  - Smallest artery called arterioles o Control blood pressure o Gatekeepers to the capillary networks Capillaries  Connect arterioles and venules  Exchange of material between the blood and the body cells - Capillary bed  capillaries servicing a particular area - Precapillary sphincter  surrounds the capillary where it branches off the arteriole Veins  Smallest vein is called venule Venules join to form larger veins Veins return the blood back to the heart 3 mechanisms move blood from lower parts of the body towards the heart 1. Valves in veins prevent backflow of blood 2. Contraction of skeletal muscle squeezes veins
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