BIOL 1080 Chapter Notes - Chapter The Cardiovascular & Lymphatic System: Bone Marrow, Coronary Artery Disease, Femoral Artery

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26 Aug 2017
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Week 7 Lecture 13 & 14 Readings: 3b(i)
The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System:
Functions of the Blood: pg. 202
clotting mechanism help protect us from excessive blood loss
buffers in the blood help regulate the acid-base balance of body fluids
regulate body temperature by absorbing heat produced in metabolically active regions and
distributing it to cooler regions
3 types of functions of blood: transportation, protection, and regulation
Composition of Blood: pg. 202
blood is classified as a connective tissue because it contains cellular elements suspended in a matrix
Plasma: pg. 202
Plasma: a straw-coloured liquid that makes up about 55% of blood materials (nutrients, ions,
dissolved gases, and hormones) transported in blood are dissolved in plasma
Plasma Proteins: most solutes in the blood, making up about 7% - 8% of the plasma they help
balance water flow between the blood and the cells
o 3 types:
Albumins: make up more than half of the plasma proteins and are most important in the
lood’s ate-balancing ability
Globulins: transport lipids, including fats and some cholesterol, as well as fat-soluble vitamins
Clotting proteins
Formed Elements: pg. 203
Formed elements: another substance transported by the plasma; made up of platelets, WBCs, and
RBCs
Red bone marrow: a porous connective tissue that fills the cavities within many bones
Stem cells: undifferentiated cells, produced in the red bone marrow, that divide and give rise to all
the formed elements
Platelets: pg. 203
Platelets / Thrombocytes: essential to blood clotting; fragments of larger cells fromed in the red
bone marrow
WBCs and Defense against Disease: pg. 204
WBCs / Leukocytes: perform certain housekeeping duties (removing wastes, toxins, and damaged
or abnormal cells), and fight off disease make up <1% of whole blood, produced in red bone
marrow
Phagotosis: the poess of egulfig a offede  a ell
2 types of WBC: granulocytes and agranulocytes
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Granulocytes: one of two types of WBCs contain granules in their cytoplasm which are sacs
containing pathogen-destroying chemicals
o Neutrophils: most abundant of all WBCs, arrive at infection site first and start engulfing microbes
by phagocytosis
o Eosiophils: otai sustaes ipotat fo the od’s defese against parasitic worms, and
lessen the severity of allergies by engulfing antibody-antigen complexes and inactivating
inflammatory chemicals
o Basophils: release histamine, play a role in minor allergic reactions
Histamine: a chemical that attracts other WBCs and causes vasodilation
Agranulocytes: one of two types of WBCs lack cytoplasmic granules
o Monocytes: the largest of all formed elements, leave the bloodstream and enter into tissues where
the eventually develop into macrophages
Macrophages: phagocytic cells that engulf invading microbes, dead cells, and cellular debris
o Lymphocytes:
B Lymphocytes: give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies
T Lymphocytes: various roles in defense mechanisms
RBCs and Transport of Oxygen: pg. 206
RBC = erythrocyte
Hemoglobin: the oxygen-binding pigment that is responsible for RBCs red colour
Oxyhemoglobin: the compound formed when hemoglobin binds with oxygen
after the RBC is packed with hemoglobin (during its creation), the nucleus and most organelles are
pushed out, resulting in the biconcave shape
old RBCs ae taspoted to the lie ad splee to die
Bilirubin: a yellow pigment that degrades the remaining part of the heme it is excreted by the lier
bile
RBC production is regulated by a negative feedback system usually in a homeostatic balance of
creation and destruction
Erythropoietin: a hormone produced by the kidney that travels to the red bone marrow where it
increases the rate of division and maturation of immature RBCs in the event of blood loss
eventually inhibited by the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
Type of Formed
Element:
Cell Functions:
Description:
Platelets
- role in blood clotting
- fragments of a
megakaryocyte; small,
purple-stained
granules in cytoplasm
WBCs
Neutrophils
(Granulocyte)
- consume bacteria by
phagocytosis
- multilobed nucleus,
clear-staining
cytoplasm,
inconspicuous granules
Eosinophils
(Granulocyte)
- consume antibody-antigen
complex by phagocytosis; attack
parasitic worms
- large, pink-staining
granules in cytoplasm,
bilobed nucleus
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Basophils
(Granulocyte)
- release histamine, which attracts
WBCs to the site of inflammation
and widens blood vessels
- large, purple-staining
cytoplasmic granules;
bilobed nucleus
Monocytes
(Agranulocyte)
- give rise to macrophages, which
consume bacteria, dead cells,
and cell parts by phagocytosis
- gray-blue cytoplasm
with no granules; U-
shaped nucleus
Lymphocytes
(Agranulocyte)
- attack damaged or diseased cells,
or disease-causing organisms;
produce antibodies
- round nucleus that
almost fills the cell
RBCs
Erythrocytes / RBCs
- transport oxygen and carbon
dioxide
- biconcave disk, no
nucleus
Blood Cell Disorders: pg. 208
RBC Disorders: pg. 208
Aeia: a oditio i hih the lood’s ailit to a oge is edued – can result from too
little hemoglobin, too few RBCs, or both symptoms include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, paleness,
and breathlessness
Iron-deficiency anemia: cause by a diet that contains too little iron, by an inability to absorb iron
from the digestive system, or from blood loss (often linked to menstrual flow)
Sickle-cell anemia: a hemolytic anemia caused by abnormal hemoglobins which causes the RBCs to
eoe defoed to a eset shape he the lood’s oge otet is lo
Pernicious anemia: the decrease in RBC numbers when the production of RBCs is halted or impaired
o RBC production depends on vitamin B12
WBC Disorders: pg. 210
Ifetious oouleosis oo: a ial disease of the lphotes aused  the Epstei-Barr
virus infection causes an increase in lymphocytes to have an atypical appearance symptoms
include fever, chills, headache, sore throat, and an overwhelming sense of being ill
Leukemia: a cancer of the WBCs cells remain immature and are therefore unable to defend the
body against infectious organisms diide oe apidl ad theefoe take oe the oe ao
Blood Types: pg. 210
Blood types: classified depending on the presence or absence of certain molecules, mostly proteins,
o the sufae of a peso’s RBCs
ABO Blood Types: pg. 211
Type A: RBC contains A antigen on its surface, and B antibodies
Type B: RBC contains B antigen on its surface, and A antibodies
Type AB: RBC contains A and B antigens on its surface, and no antibodies
Type O: RBC contains neither A or B antigens on its surface, and both A and B antibodies
when mixing two blood types, clumping will occur, indicating that both the antigen and antibody are
present
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