BIOL 1080 Chapter Notes -Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Schwann Cell, Microglia

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1080
Professor
BIOL 1080 NOTE REVIEW
Biological systems are scaled in dimensions of size/ shape and time.
Biomarkers Things to measure objectively so that you can track aging overtime. A steady,
unbiased and narrow-ranged marker is better.
Anatomy Normal structure
Pathology Abnormal structure and harmful dysfunction
Osteoporosis:
- Height loss occurs due to bone degeneration in the vertebrae
- Height is a biomarker for osteo, however has significant limitations
Circadian Rhythms:
Chronobiology The study of timescales and cycles in biology
Biologic(al) Rhythms Cycles in all zones of biological rhythmicity
- Ultradian (less than 24 hours i.e. appetite)
- Circadian (24 hrs i.e. working shifts or sleeping)
- Infradian (More than 24 hrs menstrual cycle)
The central “clock” is a brain region called the “suprachiasmatic nucleus”, which keeps
time based on light signals from the retina
Nearly every cell in the body has a subsidiary clock, which coordinates its metabolism
with the rest of the body
Bones:
- Filled with living cells, some which build the mineral structure and some that are
breaking it down
- This is called mineral turnover and allows the bone to serve as a functional calcium store
for the body. When we need calcium we obtain it from the dissolution of the minerals in
bone and when we have excess calcium we deposit it in bone or excrete in urine.
- Mineral structure of bone is composed of hydroxyapatite.
- What is calcium serving as a protective reservoir for then?
Serves as a buffer to assist in the maintenance of blood (plasma) calcium levels which is
homeostatically controlled by the CCN
Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication:
1) Direct Communication
a) Gap Junctions
- Pore size is very small for ions and small molecules. Two cells are very close
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- Composed of membrane protein structures called connexons that link the cytosols of two
cells and action potential.
b) Tunneling Nanotubes
- Much longer then gap junc, larger pore sizes (proteins, small organelles)
2) Indirect Communication
a) Chemical Messengers
- Chemical leaves cell and goes to another “target cell”. Target cell responds to msger
because it has certain proteins called receptors
- Ligands= molecules that bind to proteins reversibly
b) Mechanosignals
- As cells move they tug on filamentous proteins of extracellular space. As cells move past
surface filaments will be activated
Communication via Chemical Messengers (Functional Classes of Second Messengers):
a) Paracrines/autocrine
- Signal doesn’t travel in blood
- Chemicals that communicate with neighbouring cells. Include growth factors, clotting
factors and cytokines
- Autocrines are subclass that act on same cell that secreted them
b) Neurotransmitters
- 2 cells are very close, very few signal molecules escape from synaptic cleft
- Chemicals released into interstitial fluid from nerv system called neurons. Released from
axon terminal
- Juncture between two cells is called synapse
c) Hormones
- Chemicals released from endocrine glands into interstitial fluid where they can diffuse
into blood.
- Hydrophilic Messenger: Water soluble, crossing membranes is difficult ( Insulin,
Epinephrine). Can form thousands of cAMP.
- Hydrophobic Messenger: “Water fearing”, diffuses across plasma membranes, requires a
carrier in blood and ECF (Estrogen and testosterone)
Lipophilic=Hydrophobic
Lipophobic=Hydrophilic
Short-Distance Communication:
1) Docking
2) Autocrine and paracrine signals
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Document Summary

Biological systems are scaled in dimensions of size/ shape and time. Biomarkers things to measure objectively so that you can track aging overtime. A steady, unbiased and narrow-ranged marker is better. Height loss occurs due to bone degeneration in the vertebrae. Height is a biomarker for osteo, however has significant limitations. Chronobiology the study of timescales and cycles in biology. Biologic(al) rhythms cycles in all zones of biological rhythmicity. Ultradian (less than 24 hours i. e. appetite) Circadian (24 hrs i. e. working shifts or sleeping) Infradian (more than 24 hrs menstrual cycle) The central clock is a brain region called the suprachiasmatic nucleus , which keeps time based on light signals from the retina. Nearly every cell in the body has a subsidiary clock, which coordinates its metabolism with the rest of the body. Filled with living cells, some which build the mineral structure and some that are breaking it down.

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